Candide or Optimism - Jack Randolph (Chapters 2-4 (Candide is swindled…
Candide or Optimism - Jack Randolph
Lisbon was destroyed, they sacrifice people to avoid more earthquakes, Candide questions Pangloss's teachings
Voltaire is making fun of the optimistic mindset and that some tragedies should just be treated as such - "After the earthquake, which had destroyed three-fourths of the city of Lisbon, the sages of that country could think of no means more effectual to preserve the kingdom from utter ruin than to entertain the people with an auto-da-fe"
Candide is helped by an old woman and reunited with Cunegund, who tells candide of her misfortune from the bulgarians
"Indeed but they did," replied Miss Cunegund; "but these two accidents do not always prove mortal."
Candide and company are sailing to Lisbon and are faced with a storm, Candide, Pangloss, and the sailor survive shipwreck
"While he was proving his argument a priori, the ship foundered, and the whole crew perished, except Pangloss, Candide, and the sailor who had been the means of drowning the good Anabaptist."
Candide is swindled into joining Bulgarian Army
Showing the foolishness and naivety of Candide- "So saying, they handcuffed him, and carried him away to the regiment. " That he is so easily brought into custody by the bulgarians.
Candide is found lonely and hungry in the next town over
"For the King of the Bulgarians?" said Candide. "Oh, Lord! not at all, why I never saw him in my life."
Candide is dismissed form service and flees to holland
"His Bulgarian Majesty happening to pass by made a stop...and therefore, out of his great clemency, he condescended to pardon him"
Moves into James the anabaptist's house
"Moved with pity he carried him to his own house, caused him to be cleaned, gave him meat and drink, and made him a present of two florins, at the same time proposing to instruct him in his own trade of weaving Persian silks, which are fabricated in Holland."
The woman continues story and has the other passengers share their dread.
"A hundred times I wanted to kill myself, but always I loved life more."
The old woman describes her terrible past of rape and slavery
"In less than two hours after he returned from the visit, he died of most terrible convulsions."
Candide's Jewels were stolen, and he shows attachment to material good after mourning his misfortune
"Pangloss has often demonstrated to me that the goods of this world are common to all men..."
Candide kills both Don Issachar and The Grand Inquisitor after being found with Cunegund
"Beautiful maiden," answered Candide, "when a man is in love, is jealous, and has been flogged by the Inquisition, he becomes lost to all reflection."
Candide makes an attempt to speak to the colonel, say they are german
"the Captain, who, as well as myself, is perishing of hunger, is no Spaniard, but a German..."
Bulgarians attack the castle and kill the jesuits
"When the Bulgarians retired we searched in vain for my dear sister."
Passengers share stories and Cunegund is asked for hand in marriage by governor
Voltaire is illustrating the immediate lust others feel for Cunegund, and that he wants it in Candide's face; "Miss Cunegund," replied he, "is to do me the honor to marry me, and we humbly beseech Your Excellency to condescend to grace the ceremony with your presence."
Candide and Cacambo are captured by Biglugs, but upon revealing they are not jesuits, they are held in hospitality
Voltaire is showing a humorous juxtaposition to the way the Biglugs treat Candide and Cacao just by learning a small fact-"...since these people, instead of eating me, showed me a thousand civilities as soon as they knew was not a Jesuit."
Candide becomes sick and seeks treatment with his riches, ends up being swindled out of money in a game and by the Marquise
"Candide had not been long at his inn, before he was seized with a slight disorder, owing to the fatigue he had undergone."
Candide and Martin reach England by ship and see the execution of an admiral, Candide arranges to be sailed to Venice to meet Cunegund
"I am going to wait for her at Venice. I intend to pass through France, on my way to Italy. Will you not bear me company?"
Candide and Martin reach Paris and further continue their discourse about the nature of man
Voltaire is illustrating the malleability of Candide's opinion, in how martin's foil to pangloss shows in Candide's thoughts-- "'It is certain,' said Candide, "that there is something diabolical in this affair."
Candide fails to find Cunegund and his mindset begins to shift more negatively. He meets Pangloss's old mistress and learns of her misfortune.
Upon further experience, Candide discovers that this society has no material values, and agree about everything
Candide takes a load of jewels and leaves the valley in search of Cunegund.
"What will you have," said Candide, "to carry me, my servants, my baggage, and these two sheep you see here, directly to Venice?"
Cacambo and Candide come across a civilization with children playing with jewels
Voltaire pokes fun at modern religion in a way, and that people are sheltered to the religion that they are familiar with--"Certainly," said the old man; "there are not two, nor three, nor four Gods. I must confess the people of your world ask very extraordinary questions."
Martin and Candide discuss philosophies, and martin thinks the world is evil and not everything is for the best.
"Certainly if everything is for the best, it is in El Dorado, and not in the other parts of the world."
Candide and Martin, at a dinner with a multitude of european kings, find Cacambo who tells them Cunegund is in Constantinople.
Candide is relieved and shows his everlasting care for
Cunegund--"Good heavens! in Constantinople! but no matter if she were in China, I would fly thither. Quick, quick, dear Cacambo, let us be gone."
Candide and Martin learn that Cunegund was captured with Cacambo and Candide buys their freedom
"Miss Cunegund washes dishes on the banks of the Propontis, in the house of a prince who has very few to wash. "
Candide meets the Count Pococurante while in venice, who seems overly pessimistic especially regarding others creative works
"...I am amazed how people can bear to see wretched tragedies set to music..." Pococurante's unsettlement with the state of art
Candide frees Cunegund, and she is no longer pretty. The baron lashes out against the matrimony again.
The baron still disagrees with their joining and the influence of Candide--"my sister to be guilty of an action so derogatory to her birth and family; nor will I bear this insolence on your part.
A lot of main characters remain unhappy on the farm but maintain their philosophies, and they discuss their philosophical findings.
"'This good old man,' said he to Pangloss and Martin, 'appears to me to have chosen for himself a lot much preferable to that of the six Kings with whom we had the honor to sup.'"
Candide learns of Pangloss's survival through struggle, and Pangloss is sent to be hung again.
Another questioning remark by Voltaire about optimism- how can one see this as good?--"...We were continually whipped, and received twenty lashes a day with a heavy thong..."