USA; change in political position (Impact of Roosevelt 1933-1953 (Alphabet…
USA; change in political position
; The USA not affected by war and had a lot of money to invest since loaning billions to Europe.
The USA took over the export market from Britain and the chemical industry from Germany.
USA did insist on ful payback around $22b illion which caused hostility in Europe.
; The USA had not previously been involved with Europe since 1823 Monroe Doctrine, President Wilson wanted to continue interference and suggested the League of Nations, but Congress rejected this and this set the scene of isolationist President election in 1920; Harding's slogan was "America First"
Birth in Russia after Bolshevik Revolution 1917
Fears over immigration and creation of communism created a massive fear that anarchists and communists were everywhere; they were responsible for all America's problems and needed to be found and deported. This was lead by
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
Palmer and other officials often had anarchists planting bombs near their houses
He ordered raids on magazine houses, private houses, public meetings and union headquaters
New years day 1920
6000 'aliens' rounded up and expelled or imprisoned, often politicians prevented from taking their seats.
Between 1921-33 America was
Harding, Coolidge and Hoover left local affairs down to the people and didn't want to interfere
All believed in
. where people should look after themselves
Newspaper owner from Ohio, with little political experience, drunkard and died in 1923 of heart attack He wanted to get back to normal before the war when America was isolated and had no say in Europe Apart from a limitation on battleships with 4 other nations and a respect treaty with Japan
was his vice-president and followed the exact same principles
also began the same as he was a self-made multi millionaire, so he also massively supported
, until the
1929 Wall Street Crash
, he began by calling for states and business to tackle "The blip" but later realised it needed federal funding allocations $750 million to business, however it was too late he was defeated in election by democrat
Workers could bargain their wages with their employer and basically left to own devices.
In 1921, 5.1 million Americans were members of trade unions but by 1929, this number had fallen to 3.6 million.
So working conditions could not be improved without trade unions (people were skeptical about them)
Financial ruin for farmers
Taxes were majorly lowered
After fighting in army and munitions factories, african americans returned to discrimation
No attempts for social reforms
An Immigration Act in 1921 limited the number of immigrants allowed each year from Europe, Australia, Japan, the Near East and Asia to 150,000 each year
Impact of Roosevelt 1933-1953
March 1933 and twenty years of Democrat control of the White House.
He immediately began to tackle unemployment with a series of government funded and backed schemes. This was the ‘
Roosevelt’s slogan was ‘Relief, Recovery, Reform’; in 1933 he aimed at providing work for the 13 million unemployed in the USA
Emergency Banking Relief Act
Closed all banks for four days to calm down and be investigated whether they had enough funds to reopen, they were banned from investing in stock market; this restored faith in the banks.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Gave work to 2 million young Americans (8000 women) in the country side
Minimum of 6 months but often never found anything permanent and sent most wages home to support family.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Encouraged farmers to switch to new crops and paid to stop overproducing
Farmers income rose
But farmers had to cut down the amount of land and kill animals; criticised because so many people were starving.
Tennessee Valley Authority
To build dams to stop the Tennessee flood, to farm the land and provide electric
Industries that needed electricity also moved there providing more jobs
National Recovery Administration
Public Works Administration
which provided jobs on building schemes
The Blue Eagle
agreements between employees and workers for a good wage and good working conditions; goods produced under this had the blue eagle symbol. This was opposed by businesses
Second New Deal
Wagner Act 1935
Gave all workers the right to join a trade union
Social Security Act 1935
Set up basic welfare e.g. pensions and unemployment and sick pay
Works Progress Admission 1935
Provided money to improvement schemes e.g. bridges, schools, hospitals, airports and parks
Gaining the confidence of the American People
to explain to everyday people what his actions were and what he was trying to achieve.
All letters sent to him were to be answered and some sort of action taken.
Films of himself in the White House and around the country to gain support.
Expanded the nature of presidency and federal government.
was the biggest federal legislation ever taken.
Re-elected three times
Presidency leadership styles 1945-72
Took over from Roosevelt after his death in April 1945, similar policies to Roosevelt but Truman wanted to tackle civil rights, slum clearance, public housing, Fair Employment Practises Act
In 1949 he was elected President, he put forward he put forward universal health care, an increase in the minimum wage, more funding for education and a guarantee of equal rights under the law for all citizens.
; De Facto discrimination ended in employment, minimum wage went up and the military was desegregated but health service and funding for education was rejected.
Had opposition and lost support from the South.
Dropped atomic bombs on Japan without any foreign policy experience
Met Stalin and immediately anti-communist; truman doctrine
McCarthyism and Second Red Scare
Initially the HUAC was formed in 1938 to prove that The New Deal was a communist plot.
Problems faced abroad, and the beginning of The Cold War were blamed on treason and subversion from home, suspicions were raised particularly after classified documents were leaked and soviet spies were exposed.
1947 Truman issued order to do checks on all government workers
Started getting out of hand
Criticism of foreign policy, watching foreign films, being friends with a radical, being an ex member of banned groups all resulted in accusation of communism.
1947-1951, 3,000 government employees. to resign and further 300 were fired.
State employees and people in education profession had to sign loyalty oaths.
In 1947, the
House Un-American Activities Committee
began hearings to expose Communists; if you refused questions often lost livelihood.
Extended trials into entertainment industry, actors, directors and writers got trialled and if refused; imprisoned.
Presidential adviser Alger Hiss case was massively in the media as he was tried and convicted for perjury and lying under oath.
Klaus Fuchs, scientist in Manhattan project, German born and soviet spy arrested by British led to the massively publicised Rosenbergs who claimed they were in anti-Semitic campaign and still said they were innocent until execution.
Joseph R. McCarthy
Republican senator, Wisconsin told an audience that Communists in The State Department had betrayed America.
He claimed to have ‘a list of 205 names known to The Secretary of State as still being members of The Communist Party , he had very limited evidence and was considered a fraud but still encouraged the red scare and continued - but he was supported by Republicans
Despite Truman's veto; The McCarran Internal Security Act , denied communists work and passports
Republicans gained vote again
In 1954 McCarthy turned on army accusing them of harbouring communist spies; so the army made hearings and McCarthy portrayed himself poorly and lost all public support.