Black holes will eventually consume all known matter in the universe.…
Black holes will eventually consume all known matter in the universe.
Define consume: all known matter will be consumed by a black hole. However, this doesn't mean that all matter falls into a black hole.
infalling matter in a black hole can fall straight into a black hole if it doesn't have enough angular momentum to stay out side.
the accretion disc of a black hole is like the plate of a black hole. The black hole holds matter in the accretion disc before consuming it but the matter isn't always consumed.
in a black hole, matter is broken down into particles. These particles may just stay in the accretion disc until the black hole evaporates.
Counter arguments: Quasars, Hawking Radiation and non-consumption.
Quasars are huge emissions of matter from black holes.
these emissions of protons, neutrons, and electrons all come back together to form new stars. These stars collapse again eventually collapse to form more black holes.
Quasars are emitted when a black hole fills up its accretion disc with so much matter that it cannot hold the matter anymore and it explodesviolently
Quasars erupt even faster than the speed of light which makes them seem almost instantaneous.
Quasars can also emit hawking radiation but in larger amounts than in jets
the only way that we know for sure that quasars exist is because they emit such large amounts of light and radio waves from them and our telescopes can pick up this light and signal.
If a quasar hit the Earth directly it would tear the planet apart in an instant.
This shows that matter can be admitted from a quasar in large amounts
Hawking Radiation was forst conceptualized by Stephen Hawking hence the name.
This means that matter can escape from a black hole in small amounts.
Hawking radiation is emitted in two different forms: Quasar (see below) and jets which are smaller ejections of matter
Jets of energy are comprised of protons, neutrons, electrons and sometimes phonons.
We created an artificial black hole in Switzerlandusing a super fluid.
The superfluid had a melting temperature of one Kelvin where zero Kelvin is when all particles stop moving completely
It was created in the particle accelerator in Switzerland
The super fluid was rotated extremely fast and it made a synthetic black hole. a particle was introduced into the area above the black hole called the event horizon.
This black hole created a "white hole" above it that essentially became a giant reflecting wall that bounced the particle back and forth.
The particle that was reflected out of the black hole was called a phonon which is another part of Hawking radiation.
Creation and the formation of black holes.
Black holes have been proposed that they form in several possible ways.
some physicists argue that many small stars collide together to form a black hole. this is the least popular of the three theories and is generally skipped over when talking about black hole formation
One of the more popular theories about the formation of black hole is that giant megastars millions of time larger than our sun collapse under the immense pressure and out of this intense gravity a black hole is born.
The most popular theory is a combination of both. small stars collide with large stars and the clusters of stars collapse and then form immense black holes.
Super Massive Black holes rarely form anymore because stars that collapse on themselves are generally made of extremely light elements like hydrogen and helium.
With the formation of new elements after the big bang, the abundance of hydrogen and helium has decreased and massive stars are no longer forming. smaller stars are still collapsing and this allows for the formation of smaller but still extremely large black holes.
The presence of metals in the universe has slowed the consumption of matter by black hole but not by much.
We have not physically encountered a black hole in space so we do not know exactly how they work. the main reason we know that they exist is because we can study the effects of a black hole's gravity.
There is a black hole in the middle of the milky way and most galaxies in fact have a massive black hole in the middle of them. we know that there is a black hole in the center of the galaxy because there are stars swirling around the center at extreme velocities.
We cannot see a black hole due to the fact that its gravity is so powerful that it pulls in all matter that crosses the event horizon. This includes light. since the light does not shine out and there is physically nothing there other than absolute darkness.
Arguments in support of thesis: consumption, evaporation of black holes and rates of consumption.
the Evaporation of black holes
Black Holes evaporate at an extremely slow rate but they do nonetheless evaporate.
it can take some black holes billions or even trillions of years to evaporate completely.
This is done by the emission of hawking radiation from the photon ring and the accretion disc of the black hole. These emissions would somewhat resemble solar flares.
When a black hole evaporates it takes with it all of the matter that it has ever consumed and as far as we know, we have no clue where the matter goes which defies classical physics. however, since it is a black hole, classical nor quantum physics has yet to explain this phenomena.
Rates of consumption:
A black hole that is the size of one million times of the sun can consume a sun like stars in a matter of minutes and then after it has been ingested the black hole can take days after that to “swallow” the star.
Black holes generally consume sun sized stars years to consume. It starts by shaping the star into a disc like shape and then continually eating for years to come.
the star is started in the consumption process by being stretched out until it reaches a limit called the Roche limit, where the star is ripped apart in an event called a tidal-disruption event. (TDE)
After this, the star is stretched flat and compressed vertically, expanding it horizontally and emitting gas from the star until it is completely compressed into the accretion discs.
Consumption of matter.
Black holes essentially consume any matter that falls past the accretion disc of the black hole. once something touches the event horizon it is gone forever.
Stephen Hawking was once adamant that information that falls into a lack hole is unrecoverable. he now says that the matter falls in but the information leaves a 2-D stamp on the event horizon.
Joseph Polchinski suggests that a black hole can retain a 2-D memory of what is inside a black hole but only before the black hole is halfway evaporated.
Gerard ’t Hooft: he believes that the hawking radiation encodes the 2-D information about the object.
Leonard Susskind: he was the original master-mind of what Hawking now believes about the information of an in-falling object and how it is preserved on the event horizon.
Black holes consume all of the matter that falls through the event horizon. By the definition that I am using for consumption of matter which includes matter in the accretion disc, it is relatively impossible to pull matter out of the accretion disc.
on the topic of consumption of matter, black holes have the advantage of time where new black holes can be continued to be generated and thus the cycle continues until all matter is evaporated inside a black hole
What is a black hole:
A black hole is, in a way, the darkened corpse of a star or multiple stars. the point in the very center of the star's collapse point is called the singularity.
The Place around this is the accretion disc. it is where matter swirls around the black hole. the event horizon is just inside of the accretion disc and it is where if matter enters, it falls in to the black hole.
Accretion discs can be stretched by the heat like metal stretches with heat. however accretion discs stretch to be light years across for some regular size black holes.
Black hole accretion discs rip matter apart and rotate the particles. This creates friction between the particles and produces heat. This is where matter is ejected and quasars form.
Just outside of the event horizon but inside the accretion disc is a ring of photons that emit light and make a bulls eye around the black hole. slight amounts of radiation are emitted from this phonon ring and this energy slowly causes a black hole to evaporate.
black holes can be best modeled by the way that water flows out of a bathtub. it swirls around the event horizon before falling in to the black hole.
This description is also proven to be mathematically how matter would flow in to a black hole. matter falls through a black hole at a velocity called Newtonian Escape velocity
We can study how fast an object falls into a black hole because we can measure the empty space that it left behind.