How the Urinary system works with other body systems (Kidneys (Acid base…
How the Urinary system works with other body systems
Kidneys compensate for water loss due to sweating; active vitamin D precursor made by skin.
Skin helps regulate water loss; sweat glands carry on some excretion.
Kidneys provide active vitamin D for Ca2+ absorption and help maintain blood level of Ca2+, needed for bone growth and repair.
Bones provide support and protection
Kidneys filter blood and excrete wastes; maintain blood volume, pressure and pH; produce renin and erythropoietin.
Blood vessels deliver waste to be excreted; blood pressure aids kidney function; heart produces atrial natriuretic hormone.
Kidneys control volume of body fluids, including lymph.
Lymphatic system picks up excess tissue fluid, helping to maintain blood pressure for kidneys to function; immune system protects against infections
Kidneys maintain blood levels of Na+, K+, and Ca+, which are needed for muscle innervation and eliminate creatinine, a muscle waste.
Smooth muscular contraction assists voiding of urine; skeletal muscles support and help protect urinary organs
Kidneys compensate for water lost through respiratory tract; work with lungs to maintain blood pH.
Lungs excrete carbon dioxide, provide oxygen, and convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II, leading to the kidney regulation
Kidneys convert vitamin D to active form needed for Ca2+ absorption; compensate for any water loss by digestive tract.
Liver synthesizes urea; digestive tract excretes bile pigments from liver and provides nutrients.
Kidneys maintain blood levels of Na+,K+, and Ca+, which are needed for nerve conduction.
Brain controls nerves, which innervate muscles that permit urination
Kidneys keep blood values within normal limits so that transport of hormones continues.
ADH and aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic hormones regulate reabsorption of Na+ by kidneys
Semen is discharged through the urethra in males; kidneys excrete wastes and maintain electrolyte levels for a mother and child.
Penis in males contains the urethra and performs urination; prostate enlargement hinders urination.
Acid base balance of the blood
If the blood does not have the usual water - salt balance blood volume and blood pressure are affected
Chronic Renal Failure
Also known as chronic kidney disease, is a progressive, irreversible loss of kidney function that develops over days or years
Causes of CRF
Polycystic of CRF
Clinical Presentation of CRF
Retention of metabolic end product and accompanying fluid and electrolytes imbalances -------- AFFECT ALL BODY SYSTEMS
Early and Frequent Complications
Potential Acute Complications
Heart failure: crackles, dyspnea, orthopnea
Pericarditis:chest pain, SOB
Collective Manifestations of CRF
SERum Hgb and HCT
Electrolytes Disturbances: Muscle weakness,tetany,pruritus and skin rashes,bone/joint pain
Anemia: Fatigue,SOB,lethargy,angina(if anemia is severe)
Metabolic Acidosis: Deep respirations,lethargy,headache
Fluid Volume Abnormalities: Crackles, hypertension,edema,oliguria,anuria
Activity Intolerance related to generalized weakness secondary to anemia and uraemia
Following treatment patient rates perceived exertion at < 3 on a 0-10 scale and exhibits improving endurance to activity as evidenced by HR l<20 bpm over resting HR
Administer parenteral or oral iron as prescribed
Do not administer ferrous sulphate at the same time as antacids
Monitor patient during activity and ask patient to rate perceived exertion
RATIONALES: To assess degree of activity intolerance. optimally RPE be at <3 on a 0-10 scale
Monitor for and report promptly increased hypertension,dyspnea,chest pain seizures, severe headache, calf pain,erythema,and swelling.
notify health care provider of increased weakness, fatigue,dyspnea, chest pain or further decreases in Hct
Maintain the water salt (electrolytes)