Key ideas and changes during 1750-1850 (European Imperialism…
Key ideas and changes during 1750-1850
Movement of peoples
The transatlantic slave trade was a
triangular trade across the Atlantic Ocean
An English penal colony was established in Australia
when the First Fleet arrived in Port Jackson on
26 January 1788. On board eleven ships were
1332 people, 736 of whom were convicts.
Black birding was the human trafficking of indentured
laborers from the South Pacific Islands, through methods
of deception or even kidnapping.
With European discovery of the Americas by Christopher
Columbus in 1492, a New World was born.
Tribal groups in North and
South America and Australia are sometimes referred to
as the First Nations.
Early English settler societies in North America and
Australia were at first seen as transplants from the Old
Voluntary migration such as this occurs when
people freely choose to migrate. Such as push and pull factors.
The first English settlers of North America were investors in the company, all keen to make their fortune from finding gold and
growing crops for export.
The first settler to Australia, early free
settlers were given free land grants, The British government
introduced the assisted passage scheme to help new
settlers with some of the costs of the long journey
The industrial revolution
THE FACTORY SYSTEM
Entrepreneurs such as James Watt were inspired by new
possibilities of making their fortune from the growing
Boulton’s factory was the first to use a production line of workers.
Each worker had their own specific task to perform over and over again.
TRADE AND TRANSPORT
The development of the steam engine had major effects
on rail, road and sea transport.
With improvements to sea transport, Britain’s colonies
became more closely connected
They led to the opening up of new
markets by allowing manufactured goods from the cities
to be transported around the country relatively quickly.
THE RISE OF CAPITALISM
Capitalism is an economic system that encourages competition between sellers, who all want to make a profit.
During the Industrial Revolution, however, a
new class of entrepreneurs emerged.
In many cases, the wealth of the new capitalists surpassed that
of the old nobility.
ACCEPTING EUROPEAN INFLUENCE
The treaty permitted
foreigners to establish legations, or small embassies,
in the capital Peking, giving them special access to the
ruling dynasty. By signing such one-sided or unequal
treaties, many Asian societies became subject to greater
English men and Indian women gave rise to a new
class known as Anglo-Indians, who were fairer skinned
than most other Indians.
During the period of their rule, the British built an
extensive rail network that connected the many different
regions of India.
The introduction of English as a common language
also helped to unify the different language and cultural
groups throughout India.
REBELLION AGAINST EUROPEAN
From 1757 to 1858, the British East India Company ruled
over India, despite its loss of exclusive trading rights in 1813. By 1852, it had created an army of approximately 233 000 Sepoy (Indian soldiers).
By 1899, the Boxers had moved to the
imperial capital of Peking, where they began attacking
the foreign embassies located within the city. They were
eventually defeated in 1900, when the European powers
sent a multinational force to Peking.
ASIAN INFLUENCES ON THE WORLD
Chinese immigrants settled in places such as Singapore,
Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam and the
The gold rushes of the nineteenth century also drew
many Chinese to America and Australia in search of
By the turn of the twentieth century Japan had become
a powerful, modern nation. It soon used this power to
spread its own influence throughout Asia, beginning with
victory over a severely weakened China in 1895.
REACTIONS TO THE SPREAD
At this time, England was experiencing an
evangelical revival. This period saw a large increase
in church attendance and a new enthusiasm to preach
Christianity to the ‘unsaved’.
TRADE BETWEEN ASIA AND EUROPE
tea from China, opium from India, Vietnam
The earliest trade between Europe and Asia was for spices
such as black pepper, nutmeg, cardamom, ginger, cloves
RESTRICTING EUROPEAN CONTACT
A system of
regulations known as the Canton System was designed
to ensure that all foreigners were kept well away from
the imperial city of Peking in the north.
New social, political and economic ideas of the change
IDEAS THAT SHAPED THE MORDEN WORLD
INFLUENCE OF CLASSICAL DEMOCRACY
Democracy is a form of government in which citizens
elect representatives to create laws on their behalf.
Democracy originated in Ancient Athens during
the fifth century BC(BCE). Any male citizen of Athens
could attend the Assembly to discuss, debate and vote on
the issues of the day.
THE AGE OF REVELUTION
AMERICAN FRENCH REVELUTION
The French Revolution (1789–99) is regarded as one of
history’s great turning points. It brought an end to the
medieval feudal system of land ownership in France and
also eventually throughout Europe.
American patriots at first avoided paying taxes
by boycotting British imported goods such as tea. This
led to a series of confrontations between British troops and the American colonists, and in April 1775 armed
conflict broke out.
A revolution can occur for a variety of reasons, for
example when large numbers of people within a society
become so discontented with life that they overthrow the
THE STURGGLE OF DEMOCRACY
the Chartist movement called for the introduction of
electoral reforms to make Britain more democratic
The Eureka rebellion of 1854 is one of the
very few examples in Australian history of an armed
uprising by the common people.
In the aftermath of the Eureka rebellion, colonial
parliaments throughout Australia passed a number
of important democratic reforms
Female suffrage took longer to achieve in Australia. By
the beginning of the 1880s, women were still denied
the same voting rights as men.
refers to the ability of individuals to rise above the
socioeconomic situation into which they were born.
By 1880, the colonial parliaments of South Australia,
Victoria and New South Wales had all passed laws making
primary education free and compulsory.
of fairness, equality, helping your mates when the ‘chips
are down’ are all features of Australian egalitarianism.
This was thought to be the origin of the
Australian concept of mateship.
Australian egalitarianism, however, has not always been
extended to everyone living in Australia.