Theme 4 The Urinary Tract (LO1 (Predisposing factors of UTI's (Jay)…
Theme 4 The Urinary Tract
Describe the anatomy of the urinary tract (Hollie)
Include labelled diagrams
Upper and lower urinary tract infections
Differences between the two
How the anatomy contributes to infections
What part of the system is effected
Organs within the system
Consequences of not diagnosing a UTI (Kaine)
Long/short term effects
Effect on the urinary system
Organisms causing UTI's (Amy)
What bacteria is expected to be found when diagnosing a UTI
Normal/unharmfull bacteria found in urinary tract
Predisposing factors of UTI's (Jay)
How the anatomy of the system changes the chances of developing a UTI
Is it more common in older/younger people?
Existing health conditions
Causes of UTI's
Specimens collected for diagnosis (Amy)
What specimens are required and why
What can be seen
How the specimen is tested
Cellular components of Urine (Kaine)
Is bacteria naturally present?
Normal pH of urine
Components of the urine with and without a UTI
Include reference ranges
What components can be seen under a microscope
How these are measured
Culture media used to isolate and view E.coli (Hollie)
Agar plates/liquid media
Role of E.coli virulence factors and haemolysins during a UTI (Jay + Amy)
Name the virulence factors E.g. how the E.coli is not killed by the immune response
How these work/their roles
Define and explain virulence factors and haemolysins
The role of IgA as a host defence mechanism (Kaine)
The role of IgA
How IgA prevents UTI's
The role of normal Flora in the urinary system (Jay)
Why it it there?
What does it prevent/protect?
Is this disrupted during a UTI?
Is it found throughout the urinary system?
Mechanism of Trimethoprim (Hollie)
What is Trimethoprim?
Mode of action
What bacteria does it target?
Other treatments used for UTI's
Antibiotic resistance within Urinary tract infections (Amy)
What antibiotics are used for the treatment of UTI 's
How severe is this problem?
How antibiotic resistant individuals are treated
Why bacteria become resistant