Entrepreneurship and Enterprise
Entrepreneurship and Enterprise
Entrepreneurial behaviour patterns
-The Achieving Society ,"entrepreneurs have a desire to take personal responsibility for decisions, prefer decisions involving a moderate degree of risk, are interested in concrete knowledge of the results of decisions, and dislike repetitive, routine work
- For organisational effectiveness power motivation is required. High power combined with high self-control (socialised power) as opposed to high power and low self-control (personal power) makes for the greatest organisational effectiveness, particularly if an affiliation is also low
The right balance between need for achievement, power and affiliation seems to be an important factor
Collins and Moore
- The Enterprising Man, "Entrepreneurs suffer from a lack of problem resolution, prefer to have patriarchal relationships with their subordinates, are uncomfortable with authority figures which explains their great need for autonomy, and possess a high degree of anxiety and self-destructiveness .
"Successful R&D entrepreneurs are low in power motivation and high in awareness of self, market and employees"
Roberts (1968) and Waine and Rubin (1969)
"the highest performing companies were led by entrepreneurs high on Act and moderate on power. Entrepreneurs high on Act and high on power performed less well than the sub-groups who demonstrated a moderate level of power.
- Entrepreneurs are lower in support than motel managers, i.e. entrepreneurs placed a lower value of being understood, receiving encouragement, and being treated with consideration
- Entrepreneurs scored higher on neuroticism compared to a group of general managers
Hornaday and Aboud (1971)
- Entrepreneurs scored significantly higher on scales reflecting need for achievement, independence, and effectiveness of leadership and low on the scale of need for support.
- high aesthetic sense as the most meaningful indicator differentiating entrepreneurs from the general population
Litvak and Maule (1974)
- Entrepreneurs wanted to have their own business because of the challenge, being one's own boss, the freedom to explore new ideas
- Entrepreneurs tended to be on the internal end of scale (individuals who felt that they have some influence on the course of events in their life. They are self-reliant and more in need of independence and autonomy
High achievement motivation is an important aspect in the entrepreneurial personality. Autonomy, independence and moderate risk taking are contributing factors. The entrepreneurs are emerges as an anxious individual, poorly organised and not a stranger to self-destructive behaviour. The degree of power motivation varies and has an influence on effective leadership style. They are inner-directed, self-reliant, neglect interpersonal relations. They posses a higher aesthetic sense than an average person which may contribute to their ability to set up 'new combinations'
As a group they do not have qualities of patience, understanding and charity many of us may admire and wish for in our fellows
The future entrepreneur reacts against the early demands imposed upon him by his family and immediate environment
Social , economic and psychodynamic forces influencing entrepreneurship
Unhappy family background, an individual who feels displaced and seems a misfit in his particular environment
A loner, isolated and rather remote from closest relatives
belong to ethnic or religious minority groups -
Robert et al (1970)
The possession of and belief in, different value systems from that of the mainstream of society will contribute to the development of unconventional patterns of behaviour-entrepreneurship being one of them
The existence of individuals who have gone through this process maybe one of the contributing factors to the emergence of creative, innovative entrepreneurial activity
Hagen 4 types of events can produce this process of status withdrawal (1) displacement by force (2) denigration of valued symbols (3) inconsistency of status symbols with changes of the distribution of economic power (4) non-acceptance of expected status of immigrant groups
The creation of new roles out of necessity since many existing occupations are closed or barred to these individuals. Immigrants and political refugees who also have to deal with changes in original status position obviously fall into this category
Many entrepreneurs come from families where father has been self-employed in one from or another
In spite of the hardships so often experienced by the father, the son frequently follows his footsteps because, paradoxically enough, familiarity with the fact that obstacles have to be overcome in some way has an assuring quality
The father appears to be the main villain in the life history of entrepreneurs. He is blamed for deserting, manipulating, or neglecting the family
Mothers usually come across as strong, decisive, controlling women who give the family some sense of direction and cohesiveness
The way parents relate to these dimensions becomes extremely important for later personality development. It leads to 4 possible configurations for each parent. (1) acceptance and high control (2) acceptance and low control (3) rejection and high control (4) rejections and low control
Parents of entrepreneurs usually do not fall into the category of consistency in childrearing
Individual originating from selected segments of society might have a greater disposition for developing entrepreneurial characteristics
Changes in institutional patterns such as the legal system, infrastructure, technology, the political situation and resource availability will be other important dimensions.
Environmental turbulence appears to be one of the dimensions responsible for the emergence of entrepreneurship.
Desertion, death, neglect and poverty are themes which continue to be brought up in conversations with entrepreneurs
The entrepreneurs actions do not drive from inner strength and self-assurance which a secure, consistent family upbringing would have provided. Instead, the confusing and disturbing family interactions fires the entrepreneur to react to situations out of inner insecurity
The word "entrepreneur" originated from a French word "entreprendre"
In academic world, an entrepreneur is individual with enterprising activities and implementing these ideas
- "entrepreneurship ...essentially consists in doing things that are not generally done in the ordinary course of business routine"
- "tasks of entrepreneur as projection (forecasting the future), combination (of major new developments), innovation, and anticipation, he is really doing nothing else than restating Schumpeter's original propositions"
Managing-coordinating as a second function of entrepreneurship
Third function is risk taking (
) - "entrepreneur as the taker of non-quantifiable uncertainties.
The entrepreneur can be considered more a creator of risk than a taker of it. However, although the entrepreneur does not necessary bear the financial risk of an operation, he is exposed to a considerable degree of social and psychological risks. More often than not a great decline in prestige and status income is a common phenomenon in the initial phase of entrepreneurship .
The craftsman-entrepreneur, an individual narrow in education and training, low in social awareness and involvement, a lack of competence in dealing with the social environment and a limited time orientation.
build a rigid term
The opportunistic-entrepreneur exhibits breadth in education and training, a high social awareness and involvement, a high confidence in dealing with the social environment and involvement, a high confidence in dealing with the social environment and an awareness and orientation toward the future.
create and adaptive firm
What characterises entrepreneurship of this nature most of all is the higher tolerance for formal education (average education a Master of Science degree
A new type of entrepreneur is emerging; an individual who is better educated, not a impulsive, less concerned about control and independence and more adaptive in his approach to the environment
Tyler Brule (
Stever Robbins (