CHAPTER 7: The Human Population (Human Population Numbers (Factors that…
CHAPTER 7: The Human Population
Human Population Numbers
Current population around 7.2 billion people
Malthusian View: population grows exponentially, while good supply grows linearly
Scientists who disagree believe that growing population leads to growth in intellect, leading to innovation
Factors that drive population growth
Changes in population size
Crude Birth Rate
Crude Death Rate
Rule of 70
the doubling time of a population: 70/growth rate
Global Population Growth Rate
Total Fertility Rate
Avg. # of children that each woman in a population will bear
Replacement Level Fertility
good predictor for resource consumption rates and environmental impacts
Infant and child mortality
By increasing available prenatal care, a country can lower its infant mortality rate.
If life expectancy is high and infant mortality rate low, the country likely has a high level of available healthcare, food supply, drinking water, sanitation, and little pollution
These values can vary within a population, most likely related to socioeconomic status and varying degrees of access to adequate nutrition and healthcare
Aging and disease
A larger number of older individuals can affect the crude death rate.
important regulator of human populations. HIV and AIDS are the biggest illnesses now, and have a significant effect on infant mortality, child mortality, population growth, and life expectancy.
Net Migration Rate
difference between immigration and emigration in a given year per 1,000 people
The movement of people can cause humanitarian and environmental health issues. The movement of people from undeveloped–––developed can increase the ecological footprint of those people, because they adopt the lifestyle and consumption habits of their new country
Age Structure Diagrams
continued population growth after growth reduction measures have been implemented. Occurs with relatively large #s of individuals at reproductive maturity in the population.
Economic Development, Consumption, and Stability
Theory of Demographic Transition
: as a population moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence, it will undergo a predictable shift in population growth.
This allows us to understand how countries influence the environment as they undergo growth and development
: Slow Population Growth
nearly steady population; high birth rates; high death rates; short life expectancy
Rapid Population Growth
death rates decline; birth rates remain high; rapidly growing population; beginnings of modernization
Stable Population Growth
stable population growth; CBR falls
Declining Population Growth
population declines; high level of affluence and economic development; CBR below CDR
increasing education levels for women = decreasing fertility rates
used to estimate the impact of human lifestyles on the planet.
population x affluence x technology
; population has straightforward effect, affluence as well. technology can both degrade and help the environment