Colonial America in the 18th Century
Colonial America in the 18th Century
New England had contested Native Americans
Limited Amount of Land
Indentured servant: "The best poor man's country in the world".
Salve labor cost three times as much as an indentured servant.
German and Scots-Irish Immigrants
The Middle Colonies: Immigrants, Wheat, and Work
The Middle colonies:
Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware had half of the population of New England
Immigrants mainly German, Irish, Scottish-diversity.
Perceiving unparalleled opportunities, New white settlers and both free and and in servitude wen to the Middle Colonies.
The Southern Colonies: Land of Slavery
1700-1770 Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Indentured servants: English and Scots-Irish.
: transformed the regions economy, society, and politics.
Colonial laws severely punished slaves because of
master's commands, slaves bondage.
Slaves made a stop in the West Indies before arriving to to the
Middle Colonies and England.
A Growing Population and Expanding
Economy In British North America
1700, population of 250,00 to 1770 , a population of > 2 million
By 1770 less English / white than before.
<10% England 36% Scots-Irish, N. Ireland, 33% A. As, ~ slaves, ~15% German Language, ~10%Scotland.
Immigration contributed 1/4
Natural Increase: growth through reproduction, contributed 3/4.
17th Century New England wives:
shorter expectancy than husbands. six to eight babies.
17th Century: New England parceled out land to individual families. Partible Inheritance- subdivided land among sons.
By the 18th Century , plots of land became too small to support a family . Inheritance
enough to move away from the town they were born.
Colonist spread north and west, individual farms rather than towns and villages.
During the 18th Century
New England abandoned 17th Century policy,
Needing revenue: Connecticut and Massachusets sold land to individuals and speculators.*
Money rather than membership in a community bound by a church covenant, determined whether a person could land
Limitless wilderness stretching
made land cheap compared to the
Colonist always needed more labor.
(those who were not indentured servants or slaves) had higher standers of living that people elsewhere in the
laced New England to their neighbors.
Boston Merchants, Broad currents of the Atlantic commerce.
By 1770, the richest 5 % of Bostonian owned 1/2 the city's wealth.
The poorest 2/3 of the population owned less that 1/10.
New England: From Puritan Settlers to Yankee Traders
New England: Densely settled land.
Settlers in search of farm lands dispersed from
Inhospitable to other faiths and indifferent to religion.
Barrels crafted from New England timber with molasses and refined sugar. For Europeans with a taste for rum(made from molasses) and sweets
Puritan communities lost their cohesion.
Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade
A place to get by. New England Farmers grew food for their families with huge marketable surpluses.
Farmers grew many small crops.
If farmers had extra, they sold to or traded with neighbors.
#1 Major agricultural product exported by New England: Livestock-walked to the market on its own two feet.
By 1770 New Englanders had 1/4 as much wealth per capita as free colonists in the southern colonies.
New England, consumers. Diversified commercial economy linking to remote farms to markets throughout the
Merchants large- small.
Stocked imported, brought in goods
. -British textile -ceramics -metal goods -Chinese tea -
West Indian sugar
local shoemakers, tailors, wheelwrights, and carpenters.
skilled tradesman, cabinetmakers, silversmiths, and printers.
Shipbuilders were among the many New Englanders who made their fortune at sea
Fish: > 1/3 of New Englands 18th Century exports
Livestock and timber made up another 1/3
absorbed 2/3 of all New England's exports.
Almost all of the rest of New England's Exports went to
*Britain and continental Europe.
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The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery
Slaves: 200,000 in 1700 to 400,000 in 1770.
Upper South: surrounding the Chesapeake Bay specialized in growing tobacco since the 17th Century. 9/10 southern whites and 8/10 southern blacks lived in the Chesapeake region.
Lower South Colonist: 5% in 1700 to 15% in 1770.
Slaves on Caribbean sugar plantations ate dried, salted codfish caught by
New England fisherman
Wheat: the most widely grown crop required family labor and a few hired hands.