Actionable Feedback: Unlocking the Power of Learning and Performance…
Actionable Feedback: Unlocking the Power of Learning and Performance Improvement
Impact on Feedback Givers: Managers have hard time knowing how to make their feedback more actionable
Our minds naturally select observations or bits of
information on which to focus.
ladder of inference!
Managers are more bias towards making "internal" attributions
Stable cause bias makes it seem like behavior can never change=discouraging as heck!
"false-consensus bias" suggests that people overestimate the likelihood that others will see things the same way they do
People overestimate correctness of their perceptions
Conclusions about other people are NOT facts but are actually inferences made using the imperfect lens of subjectively filtered informa tion with possible biases and misinterpretations
Seeing our perceptions as facts makes us feel like we don't need to explain them! Makes for bad feedback
Third party perspective differences
Limitations in seeing the flaws of our own feedback
: "What examples, evidence,
or data will the other person need in order to make
an informed judgment as to the accuracy of my
Strong Emotions Can Impact Ratings and
Feedback Formulation and Delivery
Managers are more likely to be punitive when they perceive behavior as "internal"
Impact on Feedback Receivers
We see ourselves more positively than others do
BUT positive self illusions are are crucial to enabling people to avoid depression and maintain self-esteem and productivity
People may resist feedback not only because it seems
inaccurate, but because accepting critiques could
"Self-serving bias" means that in assessing our own work we tend to see ourselves as responsible for successes.
Feedback can be perceived as a personal attack
Defensive response to feeling attacked creates stress and hinders learning. It increases rigidity, restricts information processing, and creates control issues
"Actionable Feedback" is feedback that produces tangible and learning results such as improved effectiveness and improved productivity.
Feedback is vital for knowing how to improve
A Rview of studies on feedback by Kluger and DeNisi showed only a modest positive relationship between feedback and performance
Giving and receiving feedback is highly emotional. The cognitive and emotional dynamics impact both givers and receivers of critical feedback
Flawed Feedback Examples
Attacking the person, not their behavior
Promotes defensiveness because behavior is portrayed as stable across all situations and internal. Focus is on "self" not "task"
Alternative: Use "I" statements and focus on how a task could be handled better.
Make feedback difficult to interpret. People then may perceive it as false and accusatory
No clarification about conditions under which problematic behaviors occurr
Unclear impact and implications for behavior
No clarity on the impact of the problematic behavior. Ie. Why does it matter? What are the consequences?
Creates confusion on how to rectify a situation
Failure to illustrate
Illustrations are essential for enabling recipients to make a concrete connection with what the feedback is
Examples help guide and clarify changes to behavior
How to Improve
How did I arrive at this conclusion?
What illustrations, examples, etc. would I need
to share with the other person in order for him or
her to understand why I see it this way?
Under what conditions have I observed this be-
What do I see as the specific, undesirable con-
sequences of this behavior?
What would be the most constructive way to
help this person achieve better results?
How might my emotions be affecting my evalu-
ation and intentions?
Could you give me an example of the behavior
that concerns you?
Can you help me understand how you came to
. Can you help me understand the situations in
which you have seen the behavior and what you
see as the impact?
. Can you clarify what you would like to see me