Creole Latin American Revolution (Social (Women inequality (An exeption…
Creole Latin American Revolution
The Bolivar Revolutions
Many creoles wanted independence from Spain because of Spain's mercantilism policies.
Policies to buy and sell their products
Important Government jobs were given to Peninsulares in Spain
Well educated and aware of revolutionary ideas in North America and France
Wealthy landowners, mine owners, business people which is why they were more vocal against policies.
continued to push for Enlightenment ideal in Latin America
Never accepted a crown, he was instrumental in the independence of areas that became Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
Born in Venezuela in 1783
His forces achieved the formation of a large area that he called the Gran Colombia
He wanted it to become a federation similar to the United States, based on Enlightenment ideals.
Served presidency from 1819-1830 of Gran Colombia
In 1830, Gran Colombia split into three successor countries Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador due to its size and pressure from separatist.
Jose de San Martin
Led troops to Argentina over Andes Mountains to Set up independent republics in Chile and Bolivia
Argentina achieved its independence in 1816 and Peru, in 1821, though consolidations of Peru's territory wasn't achieved til three years later.
By 1825, most of Spanish America was independent
Cuba and Puerto Rico stayed under Spanish rule until 1898
"Protector of Peru"
Born of European parents in the Americas
Considered themselves superior to the Mestizos
Continued to form a conservative upper class
Born of European and Indian parents
Colonist who were born in Spain or Portugal
felt superior to everyone
bottom of the social ladder
also mixed African- indigenous heritage
The first constitution of Peru forbade voting to those who couldn't read or write.
Denied most Indians the vote til the constitution was changed in 1860
unable to vote or enter into contracts
received little education until late in the nineteenth century
Most remained submissive to men
An exeption was Maria Saenz who was Simon Bolivar's lover.
actively participated in fighting alongside Bolivar
"Liberator of the Liberator"- battle near Quito, Ecuador
Mexico Becomes Independent
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Called on Indians and mestizos support his 1810 drive for Mexican Independence from Spain
Sympathetic creoles turned on him when the revolutionaries began attacking and looting their property
Creoles eventually supported the Spanish authorities, who represented law and order.
Spanish captured and executed Hidalgo
In 1821, creole colonel,Augustn de Iturbide, attracted support of the Mexican army and the roman Catholic Church to win freedom for Mexico City.
Spain preoccupied with domestic problems
Iturbide declared Mexico an independent empire with himself as emperor
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna soon overthrew Iturbide
In 1824 Mexico became a republic
The 1824 Mexican constitution guaranteed basic civil rights but did not adress serious issues of inequitable land distribution, widespread poverty, the status of Mexican Indians, and inequitable educational access.
Political environment featured Liberals, calling for reforms, and Conservatives opposing them
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In the 1830's and 1840's, the Mexican government was led by the Caudillo (Military dictator), General Santa Anna.
Americans disliked Mexican laws prohibiting slavery.
Santa Anna, in between terms as president of Mexico,led Mexican forces in a brief war with Texas
After, a defeat at the Battle of the Alamo, Texans rallied under the leadership of American Sam Houston to defeat Santa Anna's forces.
Mexico granted Texas independence in 1836, and it became the Republic of Texas and applied for admission to the United States.
Dispute over the border between Mexico and the United States resulted in the Mexican-American War ( 1846-1848)
Mexico lost and was forced to cease territories from Texas to Californiato the U.S in return for $15 million .
Few years later, Benito Juarez became Mexico's president and served five terms
Broke the patterns of military leadership and creole rule
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Creoles were fearful of revolution
Led by a prince who fled Portugal in 1807 when Napoleon invaded
In 1821, the prince left Brazil and moved back to Portugal to become its constitutional monarch, King John VI.
His son, Dom Pedro I,stayed as a regent
Portuguese government threatened Brazil's political autonomy, many Brazilians threatened revolution.
Dom Pedro I declared Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822 (Nonviolent battle)
Declared himself Pedro I and established constitutional monarchy.
Brazil remained a monarchy til 1889 when it became a republic after a conservative by the military and upper classes