How Do I Motivate Students to Learn? (Mindset Theory (Carl Dweck, Growth…
How Do I Motivate Students to Learn?
Motivation Deficit 1: The student is unmotivated because he or she cannot do the assigned work. (Readiness)
Motivation Deficit 2: The student is unmotivated because the ‘response effort’ needed to complete the assigned work seems too great. (Work avoidance)
Motivation Deficit 3: The student is unmotivated because classroom instruction does not engage. (Interest)
Motivation Deficit 4: The student is unmotivated because he or she fails to see an adequate payoff to doing the assigned work. (Value)
Motivation Deficit 5: The student is unmotivated because of low self-efficacy—lack of confidence that he or she can do the assigned work. (Belief)
Motivation Deficit 6: The student is unmotivated because he or she lacks a positive relationship with the teacher. (Belonging)
Cognitive and Emotional Arousal
Arousal helps students to learn because something captures their attention. Too little arousal leads to boredom and sleep while too much leads to hyperactivity. Students need to be between mild attention and stress to learn at their best.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Interests and Flow
Intrinsic- Motivation that comes from within the learner.
The learner is motivated by a internal desire for one's own sake.
Strategies for increasing intrinsic motivation: 1. Involve student's interests in teaching. 2. Situational interest- making engaging and fun lessons.
Extrinsic- Motivation that comes from someone other than the learner.
Behavior is motivated by a desire to receive a reward or avoid a consequence.
Flow occures when students are enjoying learning, feel challenged and having fun.
Weiner's Attribution Theory- to whom or to what students attribute their successes or failures.
Stability- Stable vs. Unstable
Locus of Causality- internal vs. external
Locus of Control- in one's own control vs out of one's control.
Self-efficacy, Learned Helplessness, and Expectancy x Value Theory
Self Efficacy- belief in one's own abilities.
Ways to develop self efficacy: 1. Mastery Experiences 2. Social Modeling 3. Social Persuasion 4. Psychological Responses
People with a strong sense of self-efficacy:
View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered
Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate
Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities
Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments
People with a weak sense of self-efficacy:
Avoid challenging tasks
Believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities
Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes
Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities
Learned helplessness- belief that no degree of effort will ever lead to success on a given task.
Expectancy x Value Theory- Students will only do assignments/tasks that they think that they will have success doing.
Students gain motivation from doing things which relate to their goals.
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory
Students have needs which must be met before they can focus on learning.
Deficiency needs: Survival, Safety, Belonging, Self-esteem.
Being needs: intellectual achievement, Aesthetic appreciation, Self actualization
Meeting students needs in three categories: Autonomy, Belonging, Competence.
Relevance and Fun!