Why do some students want to learn while others do not? What can teachers…
Why do some students want to learn while others do not? What can teachers do to improve motivation?
Cognitive and emotional arousal
Cognitive arousal is at the very base of motivation.
Engagement between "mild interest" and "stress"
Each student has their own unique arousal level that is right for them.
Definite energy is important to have in our classes to bring students to that optimal level of cognitive and emotional arousal.
Our brains interpret boredom and stress in almost exactly the same way.
One key assumption of this theory is that we are motivated to pursue actions that help us maintain an ideal balance.
Increased levels of arousal will improve performance, but only up until the optimum arousal level is reached. At that point, performance begins to suffer as arousal level increase.
Ability is static
Gives up easily
Sees effort as fruitless
Ignores useful criticism
Threatened by others
Ability is developed
Persists when faced with obstacles
Sees effort as necessary
Learns from criticism
Inspired by others' success
Knowing to whom or to what student attribute their successes and failures.
People want to understand their environments, and, therefore, strive to understand why certain events happen.
If students fail a test will will probably attribute that failure a specific cause.
Lack of ability
Lack of effort
The selection attribution will affect their subsequent motivation to engage in similar learning activities.
A basic assumption of Weiner's model of attribution is that learners are affected by both environmental factors and by personal factors. These background variables affect the type of attribution that individuals are likely to make.
Locus of Causality-reason you give for your success or failure.
The reason you gave and whether they are consistent or inconsistent.
Controllable or Uncontrollable
External or Internal factors
Belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.
People with a strong sense of self-efficacy:
View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered
Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate
Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments
Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities.
Avoid challenging tasks.
Believe that difficult tasks and situation are beyond their capabilities.
Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes.
Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities.
A disruption in motivation, effect and learning when students feel they do not have any control of the outcome.
Learned helplessness may also result from low expectations of students, and students not being held accountable in the classroom to engage in academic tasks or activities.
Sources of self-efficacy
Expectancy x Value Theory
Combines self-efficacy and the ideas of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. This theory states that students will only expend effort on a task if they expect to be successful on the task and value the outcomes that the task will bring.
Intrinsic-motivation that comes from within the learner.
Involves engaging in a behavior because it is personally rewarding.
Connects to student interest
Designing lessons that are fun and engaging
Extrinsic-motivation that comes from someone other than the learner.
Induce interest and participation in something in which the individual had no initial interest.
Can be used to motivate people to acquire new skills or knowledge.
Source of feedback, allows people to know when their performance has achieved a standard deserving of reinforcement.
When we are in flow, time seems to pass by without us knowing as we get lost in a task or activity.
A state of mind that we experience when we are really enjoying what we are doing.
Occurs when students feel challenged and are having fun.
Include examples of your students interests in your lessons to connect with individual students. For example a student who loves basketball, you may target by using examples about basketball to explain a concept.
Situation interest can be used by creating lesson plans that are fun which may end up creating a personal interest in a subject for a student.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Considers the whole complex individual and believes that needs need to be met before they can be motivated to grow.
As you meet the needs of each level others become more important
First level: Physiological needs
Breathing, sleep, water, food and sex
Ways to improve in school: providing free or reduced lunch program, ensure correct room temperatures, providing bathroom and drink breaks, and providing snakes in the classroom.
Second level: Safety
Stability in the home, physical health, having a job, and financial stability.
Can be meet by: emergency procedures, providing fair discipline, having consistent expectations and class routines, treating each student with kindness, acceptance, and providing praise for correct responses.
Third level: Emotional needs
Friends, belonging, and love
This is used in numerous different theories
Can be meet by making a sincere effort to get to know students, being available when your students need help, and showing that you value your students' thoughts, opinion, and judgments.
Fourth level: Self-esteem
Scaffold your lessons
Take individual needs and abilities into account
Teach meta-cognition and self-regulation
Involve students in activities of importance and worthiness
Fifth level: Intellectual achievement
Provide lessons that are intellectually challenging, offer various angles, involve students to discuss concept using higher-order thinking, and help students transfer knowledge from one subject to another.
Sixth level: Aesthetic appreciation
Put up interesting and colorful wall displays, use large windows and pleasant lighting, make sure the room is clean and smells good, and design the classroom in an appealing way.
Seventh level: Self-actualization
Truth, wisdom, justice, morality, and lack of prejudice
Choice and freedom, expect students to do their best, make learning meaningful by making connections to "real" life, and allow students to be involved in creative activities and projects.
Intrinsic motivation flourishes in context that satisfy human needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
Relatedness is feeling cared for and connected to others.
Competence is feeling a sense of master about things important to you.
Autonomy is self-endorsed behavior, behavior that you find congruent within yourself, and allowed to have choice.
Two other needs that need to be met are relevance and fun.
Content that you teach students should be relevant to their lives now, and their lives in the future.
Fun: with everything else being equal, a teacher should aim to always incorporate fun into the process.
Goal setting is essentially linked to task performance
Goals indicate and give direction to a student about what need to be done and how much effort is required to be put into the task.
Characteristics of an effective goal
Specific and clear goals lead to greater output and better performance.
Realistic and challenging
Gives an individual a feeling of pride and triumph when attained, and sets up for attainment of next goal.