**Chapter 8: Who deserves what? Aristotle (Sandel 2011) (Can you be a good…
**Chapter 8: Who deserves what? Aristotle (Sandel 2011)
Callie had cerebral Palsy and make cheerleader next year she would have to compete like everyone else, in a gymnastic routine involving splits and tumbles
Is this a fair requirement to do gymnastics to qualify as a cheerleader of unfair because of her disability?
She shouldn't be limited by her disability,, questions the role of the cheerleader, whats essential and incremental?
Honour predated for others
Questions of fairness, honour and reentment
Look at the nature and purpose of cheerleading
Justice, telos and honour
Aristotle's theory of justice: 1) defining rights means we need to figure out the telos (the purpose/ nature) of the social practice in question. 2) Telos provide the argument of what virtues it should honour and reward
Modern theorists argue fairness should be split from honour and virtue
Aristotle's view if that honour and reward should come to those who are the best players
To determine what is a just distribution of the good , we have to enquire into the telos or purpose of the good being distributed.
Teleological thinking: Tennis courts and winnie-the-pooh
Fire rose because its trying to get to the sky, To understand nature and our place in it, was to grasp its purpose and essential meaning
Pooh's childlike line of reasoning good example of teleological reasoning. The only reason for being a bee is to make honey
What is a telos of a university?
Promoting scholarly excellence vs the ability to become a leader in a diverse society
What is the proper criteria for admission, bringing out the teleological aspect of justice in university admissions
What virtues and excellences do universities properly honour and reward?
Arguments of justice and rights are arguments about purpose or the telos of a social institution, which in turn reflects competing notions of the virtues the institution should honour and reward
Aristotle believes its possible to reason with the purpose of social institutions
Whats the purpose of politics
For Aristotle, disributive justice was about offices and rewards
All distributive justice discriminates, so which are just?
For Aristotle, politics is about learning to live a good life. True political communities, unlike free trade agreements are not limited in its ends. Need a shared way of life that shapes the character of its participants
Those who contribute most in politics are best at deliberating about the common good. Those who are greatest in civic excellence merit the greatest share of political recognition and infleunce
the political community exists to to honour and reward civic virtue
Can you be a good person if you don't participate in politics?
Is politics for the sake of a good life?
Why cant we live good lives without politics?
Politics often associated with corruption, compromise and special interests
Politics is about language and language is what we use to discern and deliberate about the good
If we are isolated we cant develop our capacity for language and moral deliberation
We only fulfill our nature when we exercise our faculty of language which involves deliberation
Moral virtues come by way of habit
Virtues appropriated to the role are somewhat reduced because gymnastic displays don't become essential to rousing the crowd
Learning by doing
We become just by doing just act: practicing our favourite instruments
For Aristotle, this is the primary purpose of law: to cultivate the habits that lead to a good character
Habit cannot be the moral virtue, which habit is appropriate under certain circumstances
Need practical wisdom- a true state of capacity to act with regard to the human good
Politics and the good life
Politics is essential to the good life
1) the laws of the polis indicate good habits, on th way to civic virtue. 2) life of a citizen- exercise capacities for deliberation and practical wisdom
Casey Martin's Gold Cart
The supreme court colcluded accommodating Martin's disability by letting him ride in a cart would not fundamentally alter the game or give him an unfair advantage
It was an argument about fairness
Golfers are very sensitive about the status of the games, rules and traditions
Debates about rights and justice are often debates about thew purpose of social institutions, the goods they allocate and the virtues they honour and reward