HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS THE MODERN REVOLUTION IN THE MAKING OF THE MODERN…
HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS THE MODERN REVOLUTION IN THE MAKING OF THE MODERN WORLD?
Movement of people
What were the changing features of the movements of people from 1750 to 1918?
Atlantic Slave Trade
From 1500-1880 CE between 10 and 12 million african slaves were forced to move from africa to the americas.
These slaves became property and were sold and bought.
PERSPECTIVE: The slaves themselves would have felt as if they had lost everything and many would have been depressed since they were forced to work like machines.
48 percent went to the Caribbean, 41 to Brazil, and 5 percent to the US.
EFFECT: This was the beginning of. the consumer culture that we have today. As the things that African slaves farmed, (sugar tobacco and coffee primarily), were not essential to survival but were still given high value.
CONTESTABILITY: These slaves were not captured by the Europeans themselves. They were bartered to them by their own African owners in exchange for goods.
It may have also been that Africans were actually kidnapped.
PERSPECTIVE: They did not care for the health and wellfare of their own kind, selling them off as slaves just for material goods.
PERSPECTIVE: The perspective of the European enslavers was that the Bible provided justification for their actions . The enslavement of Africans especially was justified by the moment in genesis when noah curses ham saying “Cursed be canaan the lowest of slaves shall he be to his brothers”..
PERSPECTIVE: The captors also believed that slavery could be a hereditary status passed down through generations, that it was the result of human sin, and that some people were just naturally slaves.
CONTINUITY: These views may be retained to this day.
CAUSE: Columbus's voyage which lead to the Columbian Exchange, which then lead to the next phase of global exchange which was the use of slavery to produce raw materials and goods.
CHANGE: Slavery ended in the 1880's.
The human trafficking of labourers from the South Pacific Islands to Australia.
Between 1863 and 1904 around about 60,000 South Pacific Islander people were “recruited” to work on the sugar can fields of New South Wales and Queensland.
EFFECT: By 1901 there were 1000 people of South Pacifc origin living in Queensland.
CONTINUITY: There would still be people living in Queensland who are of South Pacific Islander Origin to this day.
CHANGE: Black birding no longer occurs.
These South Pacific Islanders had three year contracts and most returned to their island when this contract expired.
PERSPECTIVE: The islanders themselves who are being forced against their will to move to a foreign place to work. They would be scared and cautious.
PERSPECTIVE: The Europeans who are trafficking these people. Their perspective would most likely be that they do not care for the health of the islanders they just want them to work.
CAUSE: As a sentence for their crime, convicts were forced to travel for weeks to reach Australia where they would work as free labourers for the settlers.
CAUSE: As the population grew in Britain, poverty grew too leading to a massive spike in crimes. This meant that jails were full to the brim with convicts. The Brits were faced with the problem of what to do with these unwanted people.
CHANGE: There is no longer this problem today as more and more jails are being built every year.
EFFECT: Many people in Australia today, are of convict ancestry although many convicts returned to Britain after serving their time.
Many convicts died on the perilous journey to the new colony for a variety of reasons.
PERSPECTIVE: The convicts which included young children. These children may fear the journey and think that they did not deserve this for example, stealing a coat.
PERSPECTIVE: Governers / Officers / Military Personell
PERSPECTIVE: Friends and family left behind.
Geographical Expansion of Empires
To The Americas
The Spanish, Dutch and Portugese
EFFECT: Mass mining and illegal trade of silver
CARRY-OVER EFFECT: Decrease of Silver Prices
Christoper Columbus's Voyage
EFFECT: Columbian Exchange
Increase in Trade
Connection of the Americas with the Old World
The Columbian Exchange, leading the connection of the four world zones , increased world trade and may have lead to imperialism, as a main cause of imperialism was to do with trade.
CAUSE: In search of "God, Gold and Glory"
EFFECT: The British placed themselves at the centre of a vast trading network, creating sytems to obtain, transport and sell these items.
CARRY-OVER EFFECT: Wealth among the middlemen
(transporters and traders).
CARRY-OVER EFFECT: The next phase of the global exchange became the use of slavery to produce raw materials and goods.
CAUSE: Requirement of more resources which were not available internally, as a empire grew meant that it had to keep expanding in order to survive.
EFFECT: Mass movement of people and increase in trade.
CHANGE: Geographical Expansion is no longer required for sustenance of Countries in the modern era.
CAUSE: Mass trade agreements between countries and increase of internal productivity in all countries in general.
The first colony was made due to a business venture, the settlers who moved to this colony were investors in the company.
PERSPECTIVE: The perspective of the free settler s would have been that this was an easy way to make a fortune by finding gold and growing crops.
CONTINUITY: This view is shared with many immigrants to this day , (migration to make money).
Other Free Settlers
EFFECT: This scheme attracted more young men than women , resulting in a gender imbalance at the colony.
To help settlers with costs of the long journey , hopefully encouraging more people to make the move.
EFFECT: The migration of over 6000 free settlers by 1838.
An incentive or reward was paid to recruiting agents in Britain to find suitable skilled labour and tradespeople, then ship them out to the new colony which urgently needed the working class people to do the manual labour in this new and untouched land.
PERSPECTIVE: The perspective of the personell in charge in Australia would be that this was an easy way to get working class people to move in order to cultivate the land.
CAUSE: In Search of a Better Life
CONTESTABILITY: The dominant view of these settlers "settling" into this country is that they settled peaceful with approval of the indigenous people although, in fact, there might have been battles. There is historical evidence of the indingenous fighting back.
To Other Areas of the World
CAUSE: The push factor was that they were disapproving of the English monarch being head of church in England.
PERSPECTIVE: The perspective of the puritans was that by founding a new colony of their own, they could practice their religion in peace.
CONTINUITY: There are still some parts of the world that do not allow certain religions to be pratised.
Imperialism, (a form of geographical expansion), also served as on of the causes of movement of peoples in this time period.
Many people moved from the country side to the city during this time since there were more job opportunities in the city due to the industrial revolution.
How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period?
Began in 1750, originating in Great Britain
Usage of coal
CAUSE: By the early eighteenth century, majority of wood resources were utilised for construction of housing and the fleet as well as cooking and heating
EFFECT: Discovery of additional energy source with an incredible capacity for work, fossil fuels — coal, oil, and natural gas.
EFFECT: Use of chemicals other than stale urine for the purpose of bleaching cloth (sulfuric acid, created in large quantities due to lead-lined chambers, possible as a result of lead production rising dramatically due to lead foundries powered by coal.
EFFECT: Turned to mining to attain sufficient coal resources.
CAUSE: Coal mines flooded with water .
Design of an engine which burnt coal to produce steam
, efficiently pumping water out of coal mines.
CONTESTABILITY: The steam engine was originally constructed by Thomas Newcomen allowing for continued extraction of the natural resource.Continuous coal availability led to the improvement of the Newcomen steam engine by James Watt.
CONTESTABILITY: Steam method was established by James Watt who designed an engine in which burning coal produced steam, which drove a piston assisted by a partial vacuum.
EFFECT: Increased production of cotton, through the use of steam powered machinery in the British colonies of North America.
EFFECT: Great Britain became the world's leading producer of cotton cloth.
EFFECT: Labour became a necessity to factories.
EFFECT: Invention of steam locomotives and steamships, which revolutionized travel.
EFFECT: Creation of telegraphs, sewing machines, revolvers, reaping machines, and steam hammers .
EFFECT: Great Britain became the world’s leading manufacturer of machinery.
Britain tried to keep secret how its machines were made.
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In 1800, it was unclear that Europe would become the world’s dominant manufacturing power in the next hundred years. At the time, China, India and Europe were all roughly at the stage of development in terms of industrial production.
Reason for industrialisation in Great Britain
Political freedom and government control
Rule of law; protection of assets
Government support for commercial projects
System of free enterprise; limited government involvement
Commercial-minded aristocracy; limited monarchy
Argued that freer political institutions encouraged innovation, and strong property rights created incentives for inventors.
High literacy rates
Argued that only Europe had the culture of science and invention allowing for the creation of revolutionary technologies.
Valuable immigrants (Dutch, Jews, French Protestants)
Often cite Europe’s small population which requires labour-saving inventions.
In 1725, wages in London were the equivalent of 11 grams of silver per day.
High wages combined with cheap fuel cost meant that it was economically efficient for manufacturers to consider as an option of lowering their production costs.
Argument involved consideration of Europeans as a race superior to others in general, often formulated as possession of superior rationality.
Social and ideological conditions in Britain, and new thoughts about the economy, that encouraged an entrepreneurial spirit
Britain was eager to produce cotton as the demand was incredibly high: India created the market and then British manufacturers invested in machines and imported technologies to increase production.
Cotton textiles drove the early Industrial Revolution.
Shortage of wood and the abundance of convenient coal deposits
Coal: improved transportation, communication, industrial efficiency and chemical manufacturing.
Location on the Atlantic Ocean
Colonies in North America, providing land, labour, and markets.
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Historical records dating to before Confucius, as well as art and architectural and literature progression.
Confucian ideals that valued stability rather than experimentation and change
Having the biggest population in the world was a definite sign of economic success.
Rapid population growth gave less incentive for machines and more for labour-intensive methods.
China invented gunpowder, printing paper and arguably compasses.
Northern location of coal while economic activity was centred in the south
Lack of government support for maritime explorations, due to an empire seemingly large enough to provide for the population
Focus on defense from nomadic attacks from the north and west
The Chinese invented paper money .
Leading in the world of exports of everything from silk to China.
Consequences of Industralisation
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, approximately 80% of the world’s population was engaged in farming to sustain the population
Recent statistics showcase less than one percent of people list their occupation as “farming” in The United States
In 1700 the world had a population of 670 million people.
By 2011, the world’s population had reached 6.7 billion, a tenfold increase in a mere 300 years.
In the 20th century:
The world’s economy grew fourteen fold.
The per capita income grew almost fourfold.
Without the technical and military advancements that the industrial revolution lead to in Europe, contest-ably, the Europeans would have found it harder if not impossible to surpass the weaponry of the defending nation.
During the period of industrialisation, many people emigrated to set up factories. For example, Samuel Slater emigrated to Rhode Island in 1789 to set up the first textile factory on US soil.
What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period?
CAUSE: Europeans wanted to build colonies to help secure sources of raw materials, especially cotton, copper, iron and rubber that were used to fuel their growing industrial economies.
Throughout the 19th century, technology had increased significantly, making it easier for the Europeans to conquer Africa.
Technology like steamships made it possible for Europeans to travel inland via Africa's many rivers.
Guns had been adjusted, remade and perfected so that they were more efficient.
First Guns Used
Quinine Medicine, sometimes in the form of tonic water, mixed into refreshing gin and tonics was used as medicine for African disease. Though it didn't cure the disease, it did moderate the effects.
Sometimes African rulers were able to successfully adapt European technology in order to be able to resist imperalism.
Europeans had tried numerous times to colonise in Africa. Many of these were unsuccessful due to diseases that swept away a vast majority of Europeans trying to settle or fight.
African's had built an immunity to diseases like smallpox because they had had these diseases fro centuries . Africa though, had their own diseases including yellow fever,malaria, sleeping sickness and Nagana which was a disease in horses which wiped out a lot of Britain's transport inland.
Europeans did have guns, but not having horses made it hard for them to be used. Because of this, most of the fighting was left to using swords.
China was a thriving manufacturing power heavily involved in world trade.
: In the 1830's when Britain's Free Trade Policy unleashed a flood of opium into China, it threatened China's favourable balance of trade.
: The Chinese confiscated a mass of British opium and threw it into the sea.
: The British responded by demanding compensation and access to Chinese territory where they could carry out their trade.
The British sent in gunships, opening trade with canton by force.
The Chinese made many counterattack attempts, but all were unsuccessful. They eventually signed the treaty of Nanjing, which stated that Britain got Hong-Kong and 5 other treaty ports as well as the equivalent of $2 billion in cash.
: In 1939, the Chinese responded to what they saw as these unfair trade practices with an unsent letter containing a threat to cut off trade of some of their most valuable products, rhubarb, silk and tea.
More than two thirds of British troops in India were actually Indians under the command of British officers. Fewer than 1'000 British administrators were ruling over 300million Indians.
Rule Through And By The Natives
They relied on governments that were already there and formed, but held control over their leaders.
Because of their small numbers relative to local populations, most European colonisers resorted to indirect rule.
This worked particularly well with British administrators who were primarily middle class men, but whom had aristocratic pretensions. they were often pleased to associate with the highest ranked Indians.
More than one third of the territory was ruled by Indian princes who were under control.
Europeans almost always relied on their superior technology to pressure local rulers into doing what the European's wanted.
Native princes and rulers dealt with the European Imperialism because they were still considered rulers, they got to keep their prestige and power to some extent.
Many princes and rulers were able to gain access to European education for themselves and their families.
Europeans wouldn't have won any where near as much land and wars without their superior technology
World War 1
How did it happen? - Death of Franz Ferdinand
CAUSE: Assassination by Slavic nationalists, a bosnian serb called Gavrilo Princip and his co-consipirators.
CONTESTABILITY: Whether Princip acted alone or with his co-conspirators.
CONTESTABILITY: The Serbian Chief of Military Intelligence knew that there was a plan for assassination.
CONTESTABILITY: Whether the bombs and pistols the assassins used where supplied by a Serbian Army Officer or not.
WHY: As heir of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Franz wasn't particularly liked in general.
On the 28th of June, 1914 in Sarajevo.
Anniversay of the Serbs' defeat at Kosovo Polje in 1389.
St Vitus's Day.
A celebration for Slavic Nationalists.
EFFECT: They decided to celebrate by assassinating Franz.
EFFECT: A break down in peaceful relations between the intitial belligerents; Austria-Hungary and Serbia.
EFFECT: On July 23rd 1914, Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia
The ultimatum was rejected on July 25th by the Serbs.
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One month after the assassination.
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The Austrians made the demands so harsh that Serbia was forced to ergo war.
CONTESTABILITY: Many argue that this was the first event that lead to the world war.
Others argue that the minor war wouldnt have turned to one so big, if it wasn't for Russia's mobilization .
What was the significance?
Various areas of civilisation were affected in many different ways.
Artists flourished as the World War progressed.
CAUSE: Victorian imagery became inadequate to express World War 1's anxieties.
EFFECT: New experiments took up the task.
Artists began to incorporate aggressive imagery of combat.
Futurist ideas such as mechanization, droids, and drones were developed.
The year 1918 radically reshaped the map of central and eastern Europe.
Several new states were formed in Germany, Russia, and Austria - Hungary.
An era of triumhant nationalism.
Zoom in to see the white lines across the main zones, these are the borders formed due to the the War.
Political Rights for Women
World War 1 played a major role in the development of political rights for women, so it is assumed.
CONTESTABILITY: World War 1 may have, in fact, hindered the drive by women to gain political rights, or its' part may have been over stated.
House of Commons
CAUSE: The House of Commons was in favour of the bill.
CAUSE: They were very appreciative of the work done by women to sustain the country, while the men were away fighting.
CONTESTABILITY: The vitality of this service during the war in terms of passing the bill may be overstated.
CONTESTABILITY: Martin Pugh believes that the vote in favour of female suffrage was simply a continuation of the way the issue had been moving before the war had started in 1914, although this is contestable.
A Revolution in Military Technology
EFFECT: Forever changed the way armies fought.
EFFECT: Technology became an essential element in war.
EFFECT: Toxic gas attacks, armoured tanks,trenches, barbed wire fences, submarine and aerial bombardment of civilians.
These advancements were caused by / during the time of the Industrial Revolution.
A belief that war and violence are unjustifiable and that all disputes should be settled by peaceful means.
Bertha Von Suttner
Was the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
EFFECT: People began to develop a variety of views of war during the development of pacifism.
MY VIEW: With pacifism, there were more people who were apposed to the idea of war and this may have meant that less wars were declared in the modern age due to the significant view that war should be averted at all costs.
70,000 pacifists in Germany during this time.
EFFECT: The Pacifists had more influence than ever before.
CAUSE: Pacifism grew as the shock of the of the horrifying war tactics used in the war not only enraged Pacifists but Nationalists and War Enthusiasts.
EFFECT: Many Nationalists and War Enthusiasts converted to Pacifism.
They called the war, "A worldwide latrine with blood, barbed wire and hate songs".
Modern Medicine developed during these times due to the need.
CAUSE:During the war, many many people required urgent medical assistance at the same time. This meant that various procedures where developed,
Procedures such as triage were developed in order for medical professionals to be able to deal with the large amount of casualties.
CONTESTABILITY: Was triage developed during World War 1 or not?
Procedures similar to plastic surgery were developed.
CAUSE: A need for experimentation was developed.
EFFECT: The idea of blood banks arose.
CAUSE: In 1914 a discovery was made which lead to the ability to preserve living red blood cells, this was a break through in medical technology.
Imperialism and World War 1 were connected in many ways. Imperialism helped to shape political alliances between nations and by diverting attention towards economic improvement. Many countries engaged in imperialism during the World War.
World War 1 lead to the Geographical expansion of many countries, this meant that the people in these countries moved as well.