Evelyn Martinez Period:6 Aztec and 100% :tada: (TENOCHTITLAN…
Evelyn Martinez Period:6 Aztec and 100% :tada:
Maize,also known as yellow corn,was a main food source for the Aztecs. And maize was also a crop for the Aztecs.
Avocados,tomatoes,tamales,tortillas,vegetables,meat, corn,chili peppers,squash,and chocolate was also a main food source for the Aztecs.
The typical crops of the Aztec were maize(corn),beans,squashes,potatoes,tomatoes,and avocados.
The Aztec dis not just merely rely on crops. They also did other things,such as fishing to get food. Not only did they fish and grow crops,they also hunted. They hunted rabbits,armadillos,snakes,coyotes,and wild turkey that were local.
They made tortillas by grinding the maize into flour so they could make the tortillas.
The Aztecs,just like many of us today,enjoyed to play games.
One of the most popular games was a board game called Patolli.
Patolli is quite similar to many board games today;players would move their pieces around a board by rolling dice.
Another popular game is Ullamalitzli.
Ullamalitzli was played with a rubber ball on a court that was moved around by players.Players could only use their hips,shoulders,heads,and knees to move around the ball.
Commonly used materials were copper,gold and silver,shells,clay,wood,rock such as obsidian,and feathers.
Various precious stones were used,such as jade,quartz(such as amethyst),opal,moonstone,and turquoise.
A common form of Aztec jewelry was the ear plug;also known as ear spools.(Men and women both wore these).
Of course there were necklaces with charms and pendants,armlets,bracelets,and rings as well.
Aztec jewelry was made with a rich variety of materials,and often more than one type of material went into one piece of jewelry.
Tenochtitlan was located on a island called Lake Texcoco. Tenochtitlan was the also the capital city.
The Aztecs created artificial islands on which they could plant gardens.
To put down their foundations,they had to drain the swampy land.
Tenochtitlan was divided into four zones and twenty districts.
Canals filled with canoes were used as streets in Tenochtitlan
The temples were called by the Mexica people of the empire,Teocalli-god houses.
The temples were four sided and they were stable structures that can withstand the earthquakes that are common in the area.
The temples would have stairs up one side,a flat top,often with a shrine on top.
Because the city was built on swampy ground,the temples would often sink and need to be repaired and built up over the years.
Many rituals would be done at the temples-human sacrifice,the private ritual blood-letting,the burning of copal(a tree resin),and the music of worship.
As the chinampas dried,the Aztecs built.
The chinampas were used to grow large amounts of flowers.
The chinampas made the Aztec farming land an even more lush and colorful place.
The chinampas became key to the food production of the people as the empire grew.
The chinampas system allowed them to create small garden islands.
FALL OF INCA
Francisco Pizarro killed Atahualpa after he said that he would spare his life if the people filled one room with gold and another with silver.
Atahualpa was kidnapped at a meeting that he was invited to by the Spanish.
Atahualpa became emperor after he killed his brother in a fight for the throne.
Pizarro was a conquistador from Spain.
He came from Extremadura,Spain
The war between Atahualpa and Huascar let the Spanish have quick access to the control and the wealth of the empire.
When Atahualpa went to the meeting,he was kidnapped.
Small pox killed many people.
Atahualpa was killed even though one room was filled with gold and the other room with silver.
Inca rulers made regular pilgrimages to Tiwanaku and the islands of the lake,where two shrines were built to Inti the Sun god and supreme Inca deity,and the moon goddess Mama Kilya.
The religion of the Inca was preoccupied with controlling the natural world and avoiding such disasters as earthquakes,floods,and drought,which inevitably brought about the turning over of time involving death and renewal.
The turning over of time involving death and renewal was called
Religious ceremonies took place according to the movements of the sun,moon,and Milky Way(Mayu).
Along with Titicaca's Island of the Sun,the most sacred Inca was Pachacamac,a temple city built in honor of the god with the same name,who created humans,plants,and was responsible for earthquakes.
Inca art is best seen in highly polished metalwork(in gold-considered the sweat of the sun,silver-considered the tears of the moon,and copper),ceramics,and textiles,with the last being considered the most prestigious by the Incas themselves.
Designs often use geometrical shapes,are technically accomplished,and standardized.The checkerboard stands out as a very popular design.
The pottery decoration,textiles,and architectural sculpture of the Incas did not usually include representations of themselves,their rituals,or such common Andean images as monsters and half-human,half-animal figures.
Works using precious metals such as discs,jewelry,figures,and everyday objects were made exclusively for Inca nobles.
Ceramics were for wider use,and the most common shape was the urpu,a bulbous vessel with a long neck and two small handles low on the pot which was used for storing maize.
Corn(maize),white and sweet potatoes,squash,tomatoes,peanuts(groundnuts),chili peppers,coca,cassava,and cotton were the staples of the economy since their economy was based on agriculture.
The Incas raised guinea pigs,ducks,llamas,alpacas,and dogs.
Most subjects were self-sufficient farmers who tended to corn,potatoes,squash,llamas,alpacas,and dogs.
Agricultural land and herds were divided into three parts:production for the state religion and the gods,for the Inca ruler,and for the farmers own use.
The Incas developed resilient breeds of crops such as potatoes,quinoa and corn.
Machu Picchu was a place of worship to the sun god,the greatest deity in the Inca pantheon.
Machu Picchu's construction style and other evidence suggest that it was a palace complex of the ruler Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui.
Machu Picchu centers on an inclined rock with a small grotto
Machu Picchu is the most economically important tourist attraction in Peru.
It is composed of several thousand stone-cut steps.
The terraces covered about a million hectares throughout Peru and fed the vast empire.
The terraces were flattened out like stairs on a staircase.
The terraces leveled the planting area,but they also had several advantages.
The terraces are extremely efficient at conserving scarce water from rain or irrigation canals.
The terraces were used for farming.
Temples and fortifications at Machu Picchu were constructed from vast pillowy boulders,some weighing 100 tons or more.
They were constructed without a motor,the joints between them are so tight as to deny a knife-blade entry.
There are records of 20 men working on a single stone.
They chipped away,hoisting and lowering,polishing with sand,hour-by-hour for an entire year.
The Inca walls stay tight because of their precise carving and configuration
FALL OF AZTEC
Montezuma was the Aztec's emperor.
Cortes took Montezuma prisoner and had him killed.
Montezuma welcomed Cortes because he believed that Cortes was a god.
Hernan Cortes came from Spain.
Hernan Cortes was a conquistador.
The Aztecs believed that Hernan Cortes was the god Quetzalcoatl,so they welcomed him.
The Aztec emperor Motecuhzoma realized that Cortes was not a god so he sent him gifts and gold to encourage him to turn back.
The diseases that the Europeans brought killed off many of the warriors of the Aztecs which helped them conquer the Aztecs.
Since Cortes was not satisfied with this,he took Motecuhzoma prisioner and had him killed.Because he was killed,the people went crazy because they had no one to lead them.