Itzy Mata Aztec and Inca 100% :star:
Itzy Mata Aztec and Inca 100% :star:
Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec Empire.It was on the western side of lake Texcoco.
There were at least 200,00 inhabitants by the early 16th century.
Tenochtitlan was a huge trading center.There were things like gold,green stone,turquoise,cotton,cacao beans,etc going in and out of the city.
Tenochtitlan was the largest city in the Pre-columbian Americas
Tenochtitlan was covered in pyramids,ball courts,and houses.
Fall of the Aztec Empire
Montezuma welcomed Hernan Cortes into the city because he believed he was the god Huitzilopotchli.
Montezuma was the emperor of the Aztec Empire at the time.
Montezuma was killed by someone who threw a rock.There are also other speculations on how he died.
Hernan Cortes was a Spanish conquistador.
He went to the New World to find fortune.In other words he wanted to get rich.
The Aztec had never seen horses,guns,dogs,carts,etc.They did not know how to responds to theses things.The Spanish had a advantage because of their advanced weapons.
The Spanish had help from other native tribes that did not like the Aztec.Together they defeated the Aztec and destroyed the capital Tenochtitlan.
The Aztec thought Hernan Cortes was a God.So they welcomed the Spanish into the City Tenochtitlan.
One major reason the Aztec empire fell was because of diseases.When the Spanish arrived they brought diseases with them. Diseases killed more Aztec people than Spanish swords.
They were advanced scientific thinkers and mathematicians.They had the most advanced number system at the time.
Science relied on math,a example would be the designed Aztec calendar.
Education was a very important part of Aztec culture.
Aztec astronomy was very important for their calendar.It heavily reflected their gods.
The Aztec also had very advanced medicine.It came in many forms such as ointments and drinks.
Architecture and Art
Artisans would specialize in metalwork,wood carving,or stone sculpture.They used things like amethyst,rock crystal,gold,silver,and exotic feather .
The Aztec sometimes used the art as propaganda to show the dominance the capital Tenochtitlan..
They used art to show events and even the gods themselves.
They set up art across the empire as a symbol of sacred creatures and gods.
The Aztec collected art from across the empire to bring back to the capital.Sometimes the art was ceremonially buried.
Ceremonial Bathing was very important to the Aztec people. Except for the priests who did not bathe.
The Aztec believed in human sacrifice.Aztec Gods needed human blood to keep the world balanced.
They believed their god Huitzilopotchli had sent a eagle to sit on a cactus. They believed it was a sign to show them where they should build there city.
The Aztec believed that magical people had first settled in the Valley of Mexico.They were called the Aztlan which means "Land of White Herons."Which is the origin of the Aztec name.
Aztec priests did not take bathes or cut their hair.They walked around with long hair covered in dried human blood.
Fall of the Inca
Pizarro tricked Atahualpa kidnapped him and killed him.With no one in charge there was no one to lead them.This caused a big mess.
Atahualpa thought he could easily defeat Pizarro.He only took 5000 bodyguard to the meeting with Pizarro.
Diseases also killed many Inca people.They were brought by the Spanish.This weakened the empire.
Francisco Pizarro tricked Atahualpa.He told him they would sit and talk.He kidnapped Atahualpa and told the people he would let him go if they filled a room with gold and another room with silver.People from across the empire brought gold and silver once Pizarro got what he wanted he killed Atahualpa anyway.
Atahualpa was the Emperor of the Inca empire.
Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador.
Like Hernan Cortes he went to the New World to seek fortune.
Tools and Weapons
They experimented with cooper to make tools.They would make axe blades with stone or cooper.
They even made drills!They were made of reed or bone.
The Aztec did not have iron or bronze to make tools and weapons.Instead they used obsidian and chert.
They also made weapons like the atlatl. It was used to make throwing a spear easier.They also had a macuahuitl which was a wooden club with sharp volcanic club or obsidian.They used it to disable a enemy or opponent without killing them.
In addition they used bows and arrows.
Buildings and Structure
The Aztec created various buildings and structures.It was one of their most remarkable achievements.
The chinampa was a system of farming.It was a floating island held by twigs and mud used to farm crops.It is more effective than farming on a area of land.
The Aztec also had step pyramids which were used as temples.They took a lot of care when taking proportions.
They also had two large aqueducts which brought fresh water for bathing.
The Inca like the Aztec also believed in human sacrifice.
Pachacamac was a temple built in honor of the god with the same name.This god was the one who created humans,plants wand was responsible for earthquakes according to Inca religion.
There were religious ceremonies that happened according to the astronomical calendar.Especially with the movements of the sun,moon and milky way.
The Incas wanted to control the natural world.This was to avoid natural disasters such as earthquakes,floods,and drought.
The Incas built two shrines for the Sun God and Moon Goddess.They were represented by large precious metal artworks.
Architecture and Art
Things like metal discs,jewelry,figures and everyday objects were made just for nobles.Some things were restricted for their own use only.
They had the best highly polished metalwork.Gold was the sweat of the sun,silver was the tears of the moon,and they also had cooper.
Women who were very skilled at weaving were taken to Cuzco to make beautiful things for Inca rulers.
The Inca had their own style which was a symbol of imperial dominance across the empire.They were influenced by the Chimu Civilization.
Certain artwork represented specific communities and their cultural heritage.They also represented the rulers of theses Inca communities.
They were up in very steep mountains where flatland was rare.They made steps called terraces to farm this was also good to keep the ground from eroding.
The three main crops were corn,potatoes,and quinoa which was used to make cereal flour and soups.
The Inca grew more food than what they needed.The stored food in special rooms.Because they were in the mountains it was easy to dry food.
The Inca were the first to grow potatoes.
The mountains were great for irrigation. Instead of water just running down the side of the mountain it flowed down each step.
When too much mountain snow melted the extra water was taken to huge reservoirs for storage.It was also taken to cities and religious centers.
Machu Picchu had a complex aqueduct system.It was constructed for nobility.
The water mostly cam from nearby rivers or brought down from the mountains.
Water was scarce in the Andes region and the water system allowed the Inca to thrive in the Pacific coast of South America.
The Inca built aqueducts to bring water to the people for drinking and bathing.