victor Perez period 6 Aztec & Inca …
victor Perez period 6
Aztec & Inca
Aztec religion was focused on how the gods, humans and nature were interconnected. There was a strong emphasis on the worship of Huitzilopochtli. The military conquest and ritual sacrifices were all related, and in a great part focused on helping Huitzilopochtli keep the sun strong so that disaster could be averted every 52 years.
The world in ancient Aztec religion was divided up into 4 quadrants, and the center their city Tenochtitlán. The heavens were divided into 13 ascending layers and the underworld 9 descending layers.
Anauatl a lowly, humble god became the sun, but there was a problem he wasn't moving. The gods realized that they all must sacrifice themselves so that humans could live. The god Ehecatl sacrificed the others and a mighty wind arose to move the sun at last.This was no free sacrifice, however. Not only would the people have to help this weak sun to keep moving they would also be responsible to repay the sacrifice.
The ancient Aztec religion was highly focused on keeping nature in balance. One false step could lead to natural disaster. The weak sun could stop moving. In the sky was a constant battle between light and darkness a battle that would someday be lost. Huitzilopochtli Hummingbird of the South was the warrior sun either the sun god or the one who fights for the sun god, Tonatiuh the name given to Nanauatl. Huitzilopochtli or Tonatiuh needed blood sacrifice in order to win the battle against darkness.
According to ancient Aztec religion it took the gods 5 tries to create the world. These attempts were foiled because of infighting among the gods themselves. After he was knocked from his exalted position by rivals, the first creator Tezcatlipoca turned into a jaguar and destroyed the world. Under similar circumstances the world was created and then destroyed with wind and then two floods.
Marriage marked the entrance into Aztec adult and independat society. The family was given a piece of land and they would have their own home. Depending on their situation both the man and the woman may be involved in working the land. Of course while a woman was involved in household tasks a man would be more likely to become a warrior. Though there were many occupations farmer priest doctor etc being an Aztec warrior was particularly glorified.
Education at least in the early years was the responsibility of the parents. The father would teach the sons and the mother the daughters. Work and education then would a big part of the Aztec society family. Work could also break up the family the father might travel or in the case of warriors may die on the battlefield.
All this was full of ceremony and form. In Aztec society family a husband may have had more than one wife - but it would be his primary wife that would go through all the ceremony. The man may have many secondary wives, who would also be officially recognized. The children of the principal wife would be the inheritors - or, in the case of a ruler, only a child from the principal wife would be a successor. Still, the husband was supposed to treat all wives equally in daily life.
If a family member escaped death on the battlefield or death from illness and so on they would be among the ueuetque the wise elders of society. They would offer advice either informally or on a council. Of course they were held in high regard in the family itself. The elderly were important in the Aztec society family and their health care aging and death was also a matter of ritual and religion.
The life of a new family began at marriage typically in the early 20s for a man and mid-teens for the woman. Marriages were arranged by the relatives though the children may have had input. The parents would have to talk to the religious leaders and discuss the signs under which both of the children had been born. The wedding day of course was chosen for similar religious reasons.
Ullamaliztli a famous Aztec ball game. The ball court was one of the first things built when the Aztecs settled a new area making it the most important of the ancient Aztec games.
Aztecs liked anything that tested skill and endurance was popular. Children played with bow and arrows marbles and stone. For adults they danced and did ritual battles for entertainment.
patolli is another game that children play. patolli is a gambling game played with beans an pebbles. It was a game of chance and skill, played on a board shaped like a cross. Players would bet pretty stones, metals, plants, and even themselves.
Totoloque was another gambling game popular in Mexico at the time. The object of the game was to hit a target with gold pelletsCortés and Moctezuma II played totoloque together..
Children play a game called tlachtli. It is a ball game for teams much like a combination of basketball, soccer , and patolli.
Fall of Inca
Fall of Aztec