Ricky Deleon Period 5 Aztec and Inca Done (Tenochitlan (Tenochtitlan…
Aztec and Inca
Mortar-free walls, Trapezoidal, tilted inward and round corner doors and windows helped protect many of the buildings from collapsing
Ashlar was a technic the inca used to make houses and buldings
The incredible civil engineering techniques of the Incas reduced the affects of frequent earthquakes.
Ashlar was a technique in which blocks of stone are cut so precisely as to fit together tightly without mortar
How rock was carved to fit and create structures?
They used granite or limestone to build their cities, these materials were available locally.
Using the natural fracture lines of the stones they used tools to crack them open introducing pieces of wood and then pouring water so that the wood would expand, as the crack becomes bigger they would insert a bigger piece of wood and repeat the process until the piece was completely separated.
To cut the rocks they used stones, metal tools made of bronze or copper, pieces of wood and water.
Next they needed to shape the stones which could have been rectangular or polygonal, which they did by carving and then polish them with sand.
Each stone was carved to such precision as they had to fit perfectly with each other.
Fall of the Aztec Empire
Hernan Cortes was a conquistador from spain
Cortes was in search for treasure
How were they conquered
Malintzin, a Mayan, woman gave Intel to Cortes.
Diseases killed more Aztec warriors that Spanish swords
Cortes used horses and guns that surprised the Aztec
Montezuma believed Cortes to be Quezalcoat who was an important Aztec god. When he realized Cortes wasn't the god it was to late to attack
Why did he welcome Cortes
Montezuma believed Cortes to be Quezalcoat who was an important Aztec god
How he died
Montezuma got killed by a rock in a protest
Tenochtitlan was approximately 5.2 square miles and was connected by causeways to the mainland. Around Tenochtitlan there were floating gardens that were human made to grow food.
The city was located in mexico on lake Texcoco
Tenochtitlan was one of the greatest cities in Mesoamerica and over 200,000 residents lived in Tenochtitlan. It was the most populated city.
Tenochtitlan was the capital city of the Aztec Empire. It was founded in 1325 and destroyed until the Aztecs were conquered by Hernan Cortes in 1521.
Tenochtitlan had two 2.5 mile long aqueducts to provide fresh water to the city.
Aztec warriors wore layers of cotton for their armor.
The men wore loincloths and long capes.
The woman wore long skirts and blouses.
Poor people made their own clothes out of their own cloth.
women were generally responsible for making clothes for the whole family
The father would go outside and work as a farmer warrior , or craftsman.
The children attended school or help around the house.
The mother stayed home to make food for the family and made clothes for the family.
In about every Aztec family every familt member is working.
Aztecs also grew many types of fruit including guavas, papayas, custard apples, mamey, zapotes, and chirimoyas. Snacks included popcorn and the sweet baked leaves of the maguey agave.
The word chocolate even comes from an Aztec word called chocolati. Chocolate could have played a part in the fall of the Aztec empire. The Aztecs believed that the god Quetzalcoatl brought the cocoa beans from the tree of life to give to them. Later, the god was banished. Aztecs believed that Hernan Cortes was their returning god
The main food of the Aztecs were corn, beans, and squash. The Aztecs also ate chillies, tomatoes, limes, cashews, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, insects, fish, honey, dogs, and snakes. The only ate meat a few times.
Maize could be ground into flour and used to make tortillas which is flat bread mostly used to wrap a filling to make tacos. Also, maize could be ground into flour to make tamales and drinks
The cocoa bean was very treasured in the Aztec Empire. In fact, the bean was used as a currency, as well as Aztec food. Or, in this case,a drink.
Incas would eat two meals a day one in the morning and the other in the late evening. They ate on the floor without a table. They mostly ate vegetables like potatoes, quinoa which is a type of grain as well as corn and berries. They ate meat like guinea pig, llama, deer, duck and fish, but only on special occasions
Food was prepared on wood fires or using a stone or clay stove to either be boiled or roasted.
Other things they ate were squash, beans, tomatoes, and peppers
What people ate varied on where they lived.
People ate well and were taken care of by the government if they were to old to work or couldn't work.
Men wore tunics which are long sleeve shirts and long capes.
Peasants and the Nobles wore similar clothes
Woman wore long dresses and blouses.
Hairstyles were also a part of Inca fashion. Hairstyles were very important because it told people your social status as well as what ayllu (group) you were from.
Inca used certain kind of paint fort their face and body. During war they used war paint and on each special and ceremonial occasions they used face painting.
Poor people made their own clothes with thir own cloth. It was the responsibility of the woman to make the clothes.
The Inca nobles lived a much easier lifestyle, but they still had to work. They also had important jobs in the government. They could own land and didn't have to pay taxes unlike peasants who lived a life style that was way worse.
Most people in the Inca Empire were commoners or peasants. There were laws that told commoners what they could do and what they couldn't do. For example, commoners could not travel on the roads and If they were caught doing it whoever found them was suppose to immediately toss them off the mountain to die. Most people obeyed the government and threw the commoners off the cliff That is why most people were at home working.
The daily life of a peasant in the Inca Empire was mostly working The only time where they weren't working was during religious festivals. They were supposed to be working when they were not doing anything else than sleeping. Most of the peasant men worked as farmers, but they didn't own their own farms and because of this they worked on land owned by the government. While the men were working on the fields, the women worked hard at the home during the day. They had to cook, make clothes, and took care of their children. Peasants also had to pay taxes to the government.
Once a person was born into an ayllu, they remained part of that ayllu their entire life.
The Ayllu is the most important part of the Inca daily life. The ayllu was a group of families that had certain jobs to do on land together. They shared mostly everything with each other just like a larger family. Mostly everyone in the Inca Empire was a member of an ayllu
The pyramids are often called temple-pyramids.
Aztec preists went to the temples to worship and pray, and make offerings to the gods to keep them strong and in balance
Aztec temples were usually found at the top of pyramids.
Temple-pyramids were used for religious ceremonies and sacrifice.
From their very foundation blocks to the murals on their walls, these incredible structures represented the Aztecs’ vision of the world
It was difficult to harvest the food since the gardens were floating in water. Aztec engineers built mud and stone walls around each floating garden. The walls acted as walkways between the gardens.
Because Tenochtitlan was built on a swampy but rich ground, the chinampas became the main source of food production for the people.
They piled vegetation and reeds on top of the raft to help provide good soil and drainage. On top of this, they piled dirt. They planted seeds in the dirt.
As the population increased, the Aztecs needed to find a way to grow more food. They could have built further away from the cities, but then they would need to guard the fields from robbers. That is why the build chinampas
To build the chinampas, plots about 30 meters by 2.5 meters were staked out on the lake bed. A fence was woven between the stakes, and the area would be filled in with mud and vegetation. The next chinampa would be parallel to this one, with room for a canal in between, where canoes could pass through. These canals offered irrigation, and provided water for the plants to grow..
Fall of the Inca
Pizzaro wanted a better life an wanted to be wealthy. He heard a rumor that the New world cointained riches so he wanted to see for himself
Francisco Pizzaro was a conquistador from spain
How they were conquered
Atahualpa thought Pizzaro was crazy because there were a total of 80,000 incan warriors and Pizzaro only had 160
They couldn't stop the spread of small pox
The inca were confident and thoght they ruled most of the world
They could't stop Pizzaro
The spanish had thingd the incas had never seen
What did Francisco Pizzaro do to him?
Francisco Pizzaro sent a Spanish messenger and invited Atahualpa. Atahualpa agreed and took along 5,000 bodyguards. Pizarro’s 160 soldiers attacked the Inca and kidnapped Atahualpa.
How did he die?
Pizarro offered to free Atahualpa if he filled one room with gold & one with silver.
Atahualpa kept his end of the bargain, but Pizarro killed him in 1533.
Machu Pichu's construction is amazing and even though the Inca's did not use iron tools or the wheel it is a surprising that it still exists. It's a mystery how the huge blocks of stone were moved up the mountains.
About 60% of the construction at Machu Pichu was underground which includes deep building foundations and crushed rock for the sewage systems.
Machu Pichu was built in Chile up high in the Andes mountains.and was built in a typical Inca style, with polished stone walls.
Archaeologists believe Machu Pichu was constructed for use as a Royal Estate. Machu Pichu is located 2430 m (7970 ft) above sea level on a ridge between the Huayna Pichu and Machu Pichu mountains in Peru.
Machu Pichu site is divided in an urban area and an agricultural area. The upper town area was where royals lived and where many temples were built. The lower town area was where warehouses and workers