DONE Melany Ramos Period 5 Aztec & Inca
DONE Melany Ramos
Aztec & Inca
Tenochtitlan was filled with beautiful buildings, such as ball courts, pyramids,and houses.
In 1500, it was one of the largest cities in the world, it was connected to the main land by causeways.
Tenochtitlan was built in the center of a lake (Texcoco), making it easy to defend against enemies.
The canals allowed travel by canoe to many parts of the city.
Tenochtitlan was a huge trading center with goods flowing in and out (Pottery, tools, etc).
5,000 people worked to build it but only 750-1,000 actually lived there. Strangely there have only been around 250 skeletons found.
The Incas used a dry stone technique, no mortar, in order to build it, they did this so that when there was an earthquake the stones would move, and the structure wouldn't break.
Machu Picchu was believed to have been built by Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, the ninth ruler of the Inca.
The rocks were cut so perfectly, like a puzzle, that not even a knife could go through the cracks.
Machu Picchu was a vacation home for the emperor and his family.
The wife was the one with the responsibility to make the clothing for the family.
There were laws about what colors or decorations clothing could have for certain people. For example, only the emperor could wear a turquoise cloak.
The poor wove and made their own clothing.
Aztec men wore long capes and loincloths.
The poor would wear simple tilmas and loincloths, while upper class men wore clothing much more adorned.
The Aztec thought Cortes was the God that had been banished, Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent)
Humans (More often adults) and animals were sacrificed in order to keep the Gods happy.
The Aztecs were Polytheistic, meaning they worshiped many gods.
The priest were not allowed to cut their hair or take baths, meaning they were covered in dry blood all the time.
An important part of daily life was Ceremonial Bathing, this meant the people were being cleaned in religious ways.
War was a symbol for child birth, people thought of it like a child being held captive in the womb.
There were many jobs, but you were glorified if you were a Aztec warrior.
Women that died in childbirth were glorified as if they were a warrior that died in battle.
In families where the man had multiple wives and children they were most likely very wealthy.
A birth of a child would call for a ritual and great celebration.
Fall of Inca
Another factor was, like the Aztec, they weren't used to European diseases, so many died of smallpox mostly.
The Inca couldn't scare away Pizarro, no matter how hard they tried.
The last factor is that the Inca thought they ruled most of the world, so they weren't ready for the Spanish.
One factor that helped the Inca be conquered was that Atahualpa underestimated Pizarro, and thought e was crazy for thinking he could go against him.
Atahualpa was killed by Pizarro after he had filled one room with gold and another with silver, they had a deal that Atahualpa would be set free, but Pizarro backed out of the deal.
Pizarro took Atahualpa hostage, and did not commit to his part of a deal.
Atahualpa was the emperor of the Inca Empire.
Francisco Pizarro was a conquistador from Spain.
Pizarro's purpose of coming to the New World was to conquer more land and get more gold.
The heavier the jewelry was, the better as this made their earlobes long and this meant high status or nobility in society.
Necklaces were very popular among men and women alike, some pieces were very heavy and had various pieces of gold.
Most of the Inca's gold jewelry was looted, melted, and taken away to Spain.
Bracelets were popular among women who decorated them with shells, gemstones, alpaca fibers, and seeds.
The nobles wore jewelry ALL the time, while commoners only wore it on special occasions.
The Inca sacrificed animals, they mainly used white llamas.
Religious ceremonies took place according to a astronomical calendar based on the Sun, Moon, and Milky Way.
Religious rituals to worship ancestors were seen through the practice of mummification and to worship Gods you had to make offerings to the Gods.
The Inca also believed in reincarnation, meaning they thought after they died, their soul would go into another body.
The Inca were Polytheistic, meaning they believed in many gods, like the Aztec.
The daily life of peasants was full of hard work, the men were working on government owned farms, and the women worked hard at home cooking, cleaning, and taking care of children. The women were generally married by the age of twelve.
The Inca ranked people based on their social, economic, and political position.
Many experts believe the festivals that were held were the cement of the empire, as the festivals united the commoners and nobles together.
The Inca rulers were keen psychologists who made it so people didn't have the time to rebel or avoid their duties to the family, religion, or empire.
Fall of Aztec
One of the factors that helped the Aztec get conquered is that Europeans brought disease that the Aztec weren't accustomed to.
Another factor was that Montezuma thought Cortes was a God and welcomed him instead of attacking.
The people that were under Aztec control turned against them.
The last factor is that the Europeans had things the Aztec had never seen before.
Cortes was from Spain.
Cortes was a Conquistador ( A person that conquers other places)
Cortes purpose to come to the New World was to get more gold, as he had heard of Velasquez"s expeditions and all the gold he had returned with.
He welcomed Cortes because he thought he was a God the had been banished in their religion. He thought Cortes was a God because he came with all these things he had never seen before.
Montezuma was the emperor of the Aztec.
Cortes had held Montezuma hostage as leverage, but then fighting broke out and he was killed.
Chinampas weren't only used in the capital city but also throughout the valley, the more land conquered the more they made chinampas.
To provide more stable fencing, and some shade, the Aztecs would plant a willow at the edge of a chinampa.
Chinampas were supported by the Aztec's irrigation and waterway systems.
Chinampas would be parallel to each other but leave just enough space for a canal in between.
In order to make Chinampas, the Aztecs would stake a bed lake from 30m to 2.5 m, then weave them, when they were finished they would fill it in with mud and vegetation.
Templo Mayor was one of the many temples that were used for human sacrifice.
The Pyramids of The Sun and Moon were not built by the Aztec themselves but it was still considered a sacred cite.
Some temples have Roman Catholic churches built on top of them, the ones that don't are places people go and pray to get some special power.
Monuments would be made for a certain God, these monuments were built to withstand earthquakes.
The priest would go to temples to pray, and make offerings to the Gods in order to keep them strong.
The Inca used this to get water to the crops on the hills that they had put there using terracing.
The aqueducts they built hundreds of years ago are still there.
An aqueduct was a pipe designed to carry water for a certain distance.
Aqueducts have been providing water during droughts for centuries, even today.
The Inca figured out that if they took certain amounts of water from rivers they wouldn't have to worry about droughts or water scarcity.
Terracing was used to grow crops on the sides of the mountains, seeing as the Inca lived in the Andes Mountains
The main crop they put on terraces were potatoes.
Terracing is when someone creates sort of like steps on a sloping land.
In 1400's the system of terracing had covered millions of hectares over Peru and fed the huge empire.
Over the centuries Terraces were abandoned because of the Inca being forced of their land and Spanish putting their own crops.