Amy Nguyen Period 2 Aztec & Inca (Tenochtitlan (source) (The Aztecs…
Amy Nguyen Period 2 Aztec & Inca
Fall of the Aztec Empire
A Spanish conquistador searching for treasure and conquered the Aztecs. Came from Extremadura with poor soil, cold winters, very hot summers, and a lot of poverty.
Came to the New World to avenge the sacrifices and enemies the Aztecs made. Also came to the New World for treasure.
Cortes told the Aztecs to stop sacrificing people even though it was part of their religion. This angered many Aztecs and they planned a rebellion.
They spread small pox and since the rebellion outnumbered them, Cortes fled.
Cortes has a small army, but he brought many things the Aztecs never seen before and thought he was a god and welcomed him.
The small pox killed most of the Aztecs including the emperor. Therefore, Aztec was conquered.
He welcomed Cortes because he believe he was Quetzalcoatl with his 550 soldiers, 16 horses, 14 cannons, and a few dogs.
He died from the spread of small pox that also killed many other Aztecs.
The emperor of Aztecs. Had strong powerful forces like Atahualpa.
The food that they did not get from agriculture would sometimes be as simple as fish and honey or as terrifying as bugs and snakes. Sometimes they would eat dogs too.
The most valued food would be cocoa beans, the special ingredient to making chocolate, or chocolatl as it was called during the Aztec times which was loved during the Aztec times and is still loved and valued today, but the chocolate in the Aztecs were bitter because many people could not afford sugar
The Aztecs' usually ate a grain that looks similar to corn called maize. They got these grains from agriculture to make tortillas. They also got beans and squash from agriculture.
The Aztecs got most of their food from agriculture. A few of the food they eat from farming are the ones we eat now. For example, beans were served in every meal and squash was grown in Mesoamerica for about 10,000 years.
Not only did they get their food from agriculture, but they also got food from hunting animals. They ate food that we now own as pets (dogs, rabbits, etc.) and food we barely even know about.
Children would attend school or help work around their house. When children were young, parents would teach them but when they reached their teens, they would attend school.
The elders or the grandfathers and grandmothers of Aztec were taken care of and loved. They did not work because they were too old.
The husband/father usually worked outside working on farming, fighting, crafting, etc. while the wife/mom worked inside as a housewife cooking and feeding the children.
Parents taught their children life-skills for their future. If the child was rude or disobeyed, they had consequences. Boys learned about history, fighting in wars, etc. while the girls were training to be married.
A lot children were sacrificed for their religion, even if they were babies.
Generally wives made clothing, but poor people usually created their own clothes .
The Aztecs has a dress code. Only nobles, which is a type of rank back then, could wear clothing with decorations like feathers and only the emperor could wear a turquoise cloak. If someone disobeyed this dress code, it would result in death.
The Aztec men wore loincloths, which was worn around the hips and they also worn long capes. The fashion today for woman is similar to what the Aztec females wore. Aztec females would wear long skirts and a blouse.
The military had their own clothing as well depending on what team they were in. Since they were warriors, they wore some protection.
Aztec clothing were usually made out of cloth and were loose fitting. The Aztecs were surprised when the Spanish came to Tenochtitlan because their clothing covered their whole body.
The Aztecs were great engineers. They built causeways, canals, pyramids, chinampas, and things that defended them.
Just like today, Tenochtitlan had zoos filled with jaguars, rattlesnakes, and other various animals.
The Aztecs conquered this land because no one really wanted it. It was a bad place to live, but with the Aztec's engineering skills, Tenochtitlan was a safe place to settle in.
It was one of the most largest cities in the world in 1500. This city made visitors surprised by the brilliant engineering and marvelous structure.
The city of Tenochtitlan was 5 square miles and was the former Mexico City. Almost 200 thousand people lived in this city during the Aztec times. It is located near Lake Texcoco or currently south central Mexico. People have lived in South America for 15,000 years.
Temples were usually found on top of pyramids so they were called temple-pyramids. The largest temple-pyramid is Cholula dedicated to Quetzalcoatl.
There were three types of pyramids: twin stair pyramids, round pyramids, and single stair pyramids.
Some temples were Templo Mayor, which is where they worship Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc, the Pyramid of the Sun and the Moon which is where they worship the Sun and the Moon,
Temples were a house of worship for the priests in Aztec. It is also where they sacrificed people because it is part of their religion to. Temples were believed to be the home of the gods to the Aztecs or Teocalli. These pyramids were rebuilt and survived until the Spanish took over.
There were various materials that they would build for temples. One of these materials were tezontle because the Tenochtitlan was swampy.
The Aztecs built these causeways simply because Tenochtitlan was a swampy area and causeways helped people get through the marshy areas.
There were three main causeways that allowed Aztecs to walk through islands to the mainland.
A causeway is a road that helped people cross over bodies of water, which is similar to a bridge. Causeways were used as transportation. Boats and canoes were under these causeways.
Materials used to built causeways were wooden stakes, rock, and clay. They built causeways by putting the wooden stakes in the lake and add mud on top of a pile of stones.
The way it was built made it easy for Aztecs to get ready to attack when there is an invasion.
To minimize water leakage, waterways were carved into rocks.
They collect water from the mountains which were from nearby rivers or fresh water from mountains.
Since terraces were used for agriculture, aqueducts were also used to send water to plants in terraces. This developed the agriculture in South America.
Aqueducts was built near mountain sides and it's purpose was to collect water and spread it to dry areas. Aqueducts has been used for centuries and are very beneficial.
Terraces are stair-like built in mountains. Terraces are great use for agriculture which was an important way for them to collect food.
The food they farmed in the terraces were cold and dried because the terraces were in the mountains.
Many people farmed potatoes, corn, and quinoa. Quinoa was used to make flour, cereal, and soup. They planted other things such as fruits, coco, spices, etc.
Fall of the Inca
Pizarro was from Extremadura who fled to America and became very wealthy from exploring Panama. He was known for conquering the Incas and his powerful team.
Pizarro was a conquistador and captured emperor Atahualpa which made the Incas obey his orders. He came to the new world because he heard there was a empire filled with gold.
Spanish messengers sent Atahualpa to a meeting where he only brought 5,000 bodyguards. Pizarro attacked his soldiers and kidnipped Atahualpa.
Pizarro ordered the Incas to fill the room with gold and silver. Since their emperor was kidnapped, the Incas obeyed him.
Pizarro had a plan to defeat Atahualpa with 160 soldiers. There was 80,000 Inca soldiers so emperor Atahualpa thought he was crazy.
Pizarro killed their emperor after the Inca completed their task in 1533.
Was emperor when his father, Huayna Capac died for whatever reason. His death split the empire and Atahualpa became emperor of Quito.
Atahualpa had many soldiers, but he underestimated the power of Pizarro and his 160 soldiers. Pizarro captured him and made the Incas fill the jail with gold and silver. He died because Pizarro killed him when the Incas obeyed his orders.
Atahualpa was the emperor when the fall of the Inca. He is very important to history and was a very powerful leader during the 16th century. He was captured by Spanish forces in 1532.
They believed in reincarnation which means that they believed that after you die, you will reappear as a living thing like a plant or human. People who obeyed were believed to go to the Sun's warmth and people who disobeyed were believed to live in eternal cold.
Incas thought the god, Viracocha Inca built the Earth's nature. People thought he did this by removing the moon and the sun from the island in Lake Titicaca.
Just like the Aztecs, human sacrifices were part of their religion. Not only did the Incas sacrificed humans, but they also sacrificed animals like llamas and alpacas as well.
Beautiful woman around the age of 10 chosen to participate in service were called acllas. They studied to be a priestess which were priest girls or the wife of nobles. In rare occasions, they would get sacrificed.
Just like the Aztecs, the Incas were polytheistic which meant they believed in many gods. The main god they worshiped was the Sun god.
People were born in Ayullus or villages. People born here did not usually go outside the border. Families worked together here and took care of the land.
When the Incas were married, they would go to college. Generally, women got married at age 16 and men were married at early 20's. People exchanged sandals instead of rings and married inside the border of Ayullu which was the village.Noblemen married multiple woman and other men would marry one woman.
Women were housewives that wove clothing, kept the house clean, helped the family. Men worked for the empire.Both genders had to make sandals for the family.
The son of the nobles would get better tutors than normal people and had harder tests and activities. They were taught courage, strength, and discipline and were rewarded sword when they mastered these subjects.
Rich children went to school and peasants, or poorer children went to work and only learned crafting. The mother would only clean and feed the kids, but other than that they were left alone.
The food storage was called qullqa (which has various of ways to spell). These qullqas were built across around 10,000 acres of land.
Food was used in religious activities. Annually, they would plant maize for the year's first maize.
Other than potatoes, they had some foods that were similar to the Aztecs like maize, beans, tomatoes, squash, and more. They ate different animals however like llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs (which were very popular).
The Incas would always have a meal in the morning and a meal in the evening. They ate many animals for example, ducks, guinea pigs, sardines, fish, and more.
The Incas were very good farmers and got their food from agriculture just like the Aztecs. The Incas main crop were potatoes and went to a hilly place to grow crops by digging out terraces.
Machu Picchu is a religious sanctuary according to archaeologist Gary Ziegler and was kept a secret to other people.
About 5 thousand people worked on Machu Picchu and built in 1450. It was abandoned for 100 years and was later discovered.
The Incas built terraces and many walls in Machu Picchu. It is 2.5 meters above sea level.
The Incas were good engineers. No mortar was used to build these walls that are still intact today.
Machu Picchu is located in the Andes Mountain in Peru built in the 15th century. Many of the things they built is still intact and people visit is to this day. There are animals that wander around this historical place.