REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION (Methylation/Acetylation (DNA methylation is…
REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses
Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
A distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.
Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, bone, skin, hair, and virtually every other body part or tissue. It makes up the enzymes that power many chemical reactions and the hemoglobin that carries oxygen in your blood.
A distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
A building, part of a building, or other place equipped to conduct scientific experiments, tests, investigations, etc., or to manufacture chemicals, medicines, or the like.
Tthe branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and the action of remedial agents.
Relating to or arising from nongenetic influences on gene expression.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the sequence. When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription.Acetylation is the process where an acetyl functional group is transferred from one molecule (in this case, Acetyl-Coenzyme A) to another.
Moreover, RNAs are made in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, but function in protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. Unlike prokaryotic mRNAs, eukaryotic mRNAs undergo extensive modifications after synthesis by RNA polymerase II. These changes include capping, polyadenylation, and splicing.
RNA interference (RNAi) RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling.
DNA sequence that increases the level of transcription of a gene that is located nearby on the same chromosome.
Some histones function as spools for the thread-like DNA to wrap around. Under the microscope in its extended form, chromatin looks like beads on a string. The beads are called nucleosomes. Each nucleosome is made of DNA wrapped around eight histone proteins that function like a spool and are called a histone octamer.
Small (or short) interfering RNA (siRNA) is the most commonly used RNA interference (RNAi) tool for inducing short-term silencing of protein coding genes. siRNA is a synthetic RNA duplex designed to specifically target a particular mRNA for degradation.
Proteins involved in the process of converting, or transcribing, DNA into RNA. Transcription factors include a wide number of proteins, excluding RNA polymerase, that initiate and regulate the transcription of genes.
In genetics, a silencer is a DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors, called repressors
A genome editing tool that is creating a buzz in the science world. It is faster, cheaper and more accurate than previous techniques of editing DNA and has a wide range of potential applications.