The Catholic Church: Changes and Complaints (Definitions (Clergy:the body…
The Catholic Church: Changes and Complaints
Changes Affecting the Church
Exploration made Europeans see that there is more out there than they thought.
Trade stimulated exploration.
increased wealth for many and led to the growth of cities and a new class of merchants.
Disruption of Class System
Medieval society until this time had been comprised of three classes: the clergy, the nobility, and the peasants.
With the increase in trade, rose a new class of townspeople eager to capitalize on the opportunities for business and personal wealth.
People who became rich gave them influence that greatly affected the power structure of the society.
Scholars instigated a new cultural and intellectual movement known as humanism.
Scholars also reached back to the works of Greek and Roman philosophers
This philosophy was centered in the belief that the human intellect was a powerful force for change and improvement.
Complaints Against The Church
People were upset by the high taxes charged by the bishops to support the Pope and his projects.
Popes and Cardinals often lived more like kings than spiritual leaders. Popes claimed temporal (political) as well as spiritual power.
They commanded armies, made political alliances and enemies, and sometimes, even waged war.
Problems with Popes
Philip IV of France persuaded a newly elected French pope to move his headquarters from Rome to France. A successor to the papacy, Urban VI, once again ruled in Rome, but was 'impeached' because he was so moody.
The French ruling family chose another pope, but Urban continued to act as pope in Rome. Each declared that he was the pope, and that nothing the other did as pope was valid.
In 1417, a council agreed on a compromise candidate, kicked out the others, and reinstated the papacy in Rome. However, many people's faith in the pope's authority had diminished.
By the time of the Reformation, however, indulgences were a common way for the Church to raise money.
The indulgence to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica, offered by Pope Leo and preached by Johann Tetzel, was what so infuriated Martin Luther -- Tetzel even claimed that this indulgence could atone for sins not yet committed.
The common person wanted to hear: that he could confess his sins, pay some money, and be free from suffering in purgatory.
the body of all people ordained for religious duties, especially in the Christian Church.
As the spirit of the Renaissance swept across Europe, scholars reached back to the works of Greek and Roman philosophers and writers and instigated a new cultural and intellectual movement
a senior member of the Christian clergy, typically in charge of a diocese and empowered to confer holy orders.
the office or rank of a bishop.
High church officials.
the power of a bishop or cleric, especially the Pope, in secular matters.
the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges, for example pardons or benefices.
the practice among those with power or influence of favoring relatives or friends, especially by giving them jobs.
split within the Catholic Church which lasted from 1378 to 1417.
charge with treason or another crime against the state.
a grant by the Pope of remission of the temporal punishment in purgatory still due for sins after absolution. The unrestricted sale of indulgences by pardoners was a widespread abuse during the later Middle Ages
is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven".