The Catholic Church: Changes and Complaints (Questions (What was the…
The Catholic Church: Changes and Complaints
Complaints Against the Church
Bishop- a senior member of the Christian clergy, empowered to confer holy orders
Bishopric- the office or rank of a bishop
Cardinals- a high official of the Roman Catholic Church who ranks next below the pope
Simony- the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges
Temporal power- the power of a bishop or cleric
Nepotism- the practice among those with power or influence of favoring relatives or friends
Popes and Cardinals commanded armies, made political alliances and enemies, and waged wars.
Clergy became corrupt as noble families paid for bishoprics and demanded their interests be served
High taxes charged by the bishops to support the Pope and his projects, caused anger
Problems with Popes
Papal Schisma- split within the Catholic Church which lasted from 1378 to 1417. Three men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.
Impeached- call into question the integrity or validity of
1417- council agreed on a candidate, kicked out others, reinstated the papacy
People's faith in Pope's authority diminished
1378-1417: two popes claimed leadership of the church
Purgatory- a place or state of suffering inhabited by the souls of sinners who are expiating their sins before going to heaven.
Offered released from punishment due to sins, granted after a person's sins had been forgiven by a priest
Indulgence- the action or fact of indulging
First sold in the Crusades to help support those who are fighting
People wanted to hear that he could confess his sins, pay some money, and be free from suffering in purgatory.
Changes Affecting the Chruch
Columbus, Magellan, and other explorations caused the Europeans to reexamine their place in the world
Trade increased wealth for many and led to growth of cities and new classes of merchants
Europeans believed themselves to be at the middle of a small, compact world
Distribution of Class System
Clergy- the body of all people ordained for religious duties
Three classes: Clergy, Nobility, and the Peasants
New class of townspeople eager to capitalize the opportunities for business and personal wealth was caused due to trade
Their riches gave them influence that greatly affected power structure of society
Humanism- an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
Scholars reached back to works of Greek and Roman philosophers
Centered with the belief that human intellect was a powerful force
Philosophers created new cultures
What was the typical sin that was forgiven?
Why did noble families pay for the bishopric?
What objects or foods were traded?
What did the new culture that the philosophers created look like?
Which class: clergy, nobility, and peasants were the most successful?