The Catholic Church- Changes and Complaints (Vocab (Bishop: A senior…
The Catholic Church- Changes and Complaints
Changes Affecting the Church
Trade increased wealth for many and led to the growth of cities and a new class of merchants.
Europeans had believed themselves had to be at the center of a small, compact of the three known continents (Europe, Africa and Asia) and the mysterious unknown.
Columbus, Magellan, and others forced Europeans to reexamine in their place in the new world.
The human intellect was a powerful force for change and improvement.
The spirit of the Renaissance swept across Europe, scholars reached back to the works of Greek and Roman philosophers and writers and instigated a new cultural and intellectual movement known as humanism.
Disruption of Class System
With the increase in trade, however, rose a new class of townspeople eager to capitalize on the opportunities for business and personal wealth.
Medieval society until this time had been comprised of three classes: the clergy, the nobility, and the peasants.
Their recently acquired riches gave them influence that greatly affected the power structure of society.
Complaints Against The Church
Because of the inextricable relationship between the church and politics, many of the clergy had become corrupt as noble families paid for bishoprics and then demanded that their interests be served.
Many bishops held more than one office--offices that more often than not had been sold to the highest bidder.
They commanded armies, made political alliances and enemies, and sometimes, even waged war.
By the time of the Reformation, however, indulgences were a common way for the Church to raise money.
Indulgences were one way in which the Church sought to raise money to support itself.
In its original form, an indulgence itself did not grant forgiveness of sin.
Problems with Popes
The French ruling family chose another pope who again moved to France, but Urban continued to act as pope in Rome.
From 1378-1417, two popes claimed leadership of the Church. This problem, known as the Papal Schism, resulted when Philip IV of France persuaded a newly elected French pope to move his headquarters from Rome to France.
By this point, however, many people's faith in the pope's authority had diminished.
Bishop: A senior member of the Christian clergy, usually in charge of a diocese and empowered to confer holy orders.
Bishopric: The office or rank of a bishop.
Cardinals: A leading dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church. Cardinals are nominated by the Pope, and form the Sacred College which elects succeeding popes (now invariably from among their own number).
Clergy: The group or body of ordained persons in a religion, as distinguished from the laity.
Humanism: A rationalist outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
Simony: The practice, now usually regarded as a sin, of buying or selling spiritual or Church benefits such as pardons, relics, etc, or preferments.
Nepotism: Patronage bestowed or favoritism shown on the basis of family relationship, as in business and politics.
Temporal power:The power of a bishop or cleric, especially the Pope.
Papal Schism: A split or division between strongly opposed sections or parties, caused by differences in opinion or belief.
Impeached: To bring an accusation against.