ENGLISH LANGUAGE REVISION
ENGLISH LANGUAGE REVISION
OTHER USEFUL TERMINOLOGY
a noun phrase referring to a person or thing that is the recipient of the action of a transitive verb, for example the
fed the dog
the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject (e.g.
a word naming an attribute of a noun, such as sweet, red, or technical.
Shows relation to another noun/noun phrase - she came
a word or phrase that modifies the meaning of an adjective, verb, or other adverb, expressing manner, place, time, or degree (e.g. gently, here, now, very )
connective - FANBOYS
a specific item / object
an exclamation used in a noun phrase/ sentence - ah! I see!
a modifying word that determines the kind of reference a noun or noun group has, for example a, the, every.
a verb or phrase in the imperative mood (fetch me that, stop! go!)
(of a sentence or phrase) taking the form of a simple statement - That car is red
a word used in questions, such as how or what.
word or sentence that denotes an exclamation
Going off on a tangent
Gives the reader an insight into the gist of the argument
PREDICATIVE - post modifying adjective
ATTRIBUTIVE - pre modifying adjective
Hypernym - the name of a category - i.e vegetable
Hyponym - the name of a category member - i.e carrot
Mismatch statement (predicate statement)- when a child makes an assumption based on what is usually the case but in this particular instance isn't - for example, a child saying 'doll' when pointing to an empty cot
Bound morpheme - a morpheme that can't exist on it's own - i.e the
Categorical overextension - over extending a label from 1 item to another due to category - i.e calling all green vegetables a cabbage
Analogical overextension - extending a label from 1 item to another by connected their functions or how they look/ are perceived - for example, calling a 'firetruck' a 'fire ambulance'
Underextension - not applying labels enough, for example identifying a real banana, but not a picture of a banana in a book
Overextension - applying labels too often, for example calling every green vegetable a cabbage
Comprehension - the ability to understand language - may differ from understanding
Orthography - the spelling system
Free morpheme - a morpheme that can exist on it's own - i.e help
Gestalt expression - the way in which children at certain stages of development can compress a string of words into a single utterance -i.e wassat (usually happens because the child has yet to segment the sounds into separate words)
Segment - perceive the boundaries or breaks between the units - 'once upon a time' - not 'one sponner time'
Holophrastic stage (one word stage) - whole word phrase - children can express whole phrases through one utterance -'milk' 'tea'
2 word stage - involves children beginning to use syntax when speaking - create mini simple sentences or noun phrases (Brown - noted than many 2 word utterances fit into a common set off patterns, one word being the 'doer' and the other being done - ('mummy eat', 'i walk') an action and a thing being acted upon - ('drink juice, 'get baby') or an object and its qualities ('nappy wet', 'daddy sad'))
Pivot schema - (Braine - noted that in the 2 word stage, children use patterns of 2 word utterances that seem to revolve around key words) - 'pivot words' combined with what he called 'slots' - 'allgone' acts as a pivot, and different slots fit into this, i.e - 'allgone daddy', 'allgone milk' - helps develop a range of communication
Telegraphic stage - after the 2 word stage, adds more words into utterances but ommits less meaningful grammatical words such as auxiliary verbs, determiners and prepositions
Post-telegraphic stage - children start to incorporate determiners, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, tense, passive voice and clause structures
Aspect - way in which certain grammatical markings on verb forms indicate whether an action or stage is on going - 'ing' (this is called a progressive)
Over generalization - applying a rule and assuming that every example follows that same system - i.e the past inflection 'ed' used for every past tense term - runned, eated, seed
Child directed speech - the way in which adults alter their speech when talking to children
Construction - ready made chunks of language that can be used productively to express many ideas - 'i want x' , i am x'
Nurture - the idea that language development comes from social interaction
Object permanence - the idea that objects exist even when they cannot be seen - i.e, hiding a toy under a blanket
Seriation - the idea of objects being in a series - has to be understood before a child can use comparatives and superlatives (Piaget)
Grapheme - alphabet and visual symbols
Grapho - phonemic - the relationship between words and sounds
Scaffolding - (Vygotsky) - the idea that structures need to be in place to help learners on to the next stage - help given by teachers and parents opposed to independent learning
Zone of proximal development - the difference between what a learner can and can't do with and without help
Co-ordination - joining elements together using co-ordinating conjunctions
Deixis - The act of pointing to something by using certain language items. Deictic expressions refer to aspects of space (over there), temporal deixis (yesterday) and person deixis (they)
Is / do / have / be
EPISTEMIC MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
can / could
DEONTIC MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
can / could / will / would / should / may / shall
verbs that effect an object - she
MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
must / should / ought
action verbs that do not effect an object - she
PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBS:
verbs that express a state, rather than an action (have no definite beginning and end)- see, hear, have, smell
Event verbs refer to events—happenings that begin and end at a definite time. For example, the verb build, as it is used in the sentence 'Jack built a beautiful house by the beach' is an event verb.
Joins an adjective or noun to a subject (is, am, are, was, were)
Refers to an object - table/chair
Name of person or place
Used to refer to a general, rather than specific thing - animal, people
Used to refer to oneself or others - I, me, he, she, we, us
concept - happiness / sadness / joy
A noun that can be used in the plural, or with the indefinite article - books/ a book
A noun that can't be counted or used with an indefinite / definite article - China , happiness
CHILDREN'S LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
Consequently, Chomsky proposed the theory of ‘universal grammar’ - an idea of innate biological grammatical categories, such as noun and verb categories, that facilitate the entire language development in children and overall language processing in adults
Disagrees with Skinner's behaviourist theory - Chomsky argues that children will never aquire the ability to form an infinite number of sentences if the language acquisition was dependent on language input alone
Argues that language is an innate ability in the human brain and is not due to social interaction
- language acquisition device - a language acquisition organ in the brain, that activates when children are exposed to language
NATIVIST THEORY - NOAM CHOMSKY
BEHAVIOURIST THEORY - B F SKINNER
Believes that children acquire language through positive and negative reinforcement - for example, if a child says 'milk' and is rewarded with milk from the mother, the child will see the benefit of language and so will continue to use it
Language acquisition for Piaget is a mental and emotional process - linking the development of language in a child to its cognitive development
He believed that a child must have the understanding of a concept before they can verbalize it
Behaviourists saw humans as programmed animals, cognitivists see them as rational
Cognitive theory emerged in response to behaviourism and focuses on the inner mental workings of human beings to understand how people learn
Piaget states that children’s cognitive development stems from independent exploration in which they construct knowledge of their own.
COGNITIVE THEORY - JEAN PIAGET
Vygotsky places considerably more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development (Piaget is criticized for underestimating this)
Vygotsky places importance on cultural ability to shape cognitive development , whereas Piaget states that cognitive development is the same in every culture
Unlike Piaget (cognitive theorist) who believed that cognitive development must precede learning, Vygotsky argued that social learning trends precede language development
Stresses the fundamental role of social interaction in children's language acquisition
SOCIAL INTERACTIONIST - LEV VYGOTSKY
Vygotsky believes that cognitive development stems from social interaction as children and their peers co construct knowledge
Piaget believes that language depends on thought, however for Vygotsky language and thought are separate until the age of 3, when they merge together
sibilant - making or characterized by a hissing sound (slippery snake)
voiced - vibrates vocal cords - B and P for example, B vibrates the vocal cords, P doesn't
plosive - 'P', 'B', 'C'