European refugee crisis ( focus on the war in Syria (Push and Pull factors…
European refugee crisis ( focus on the war in Syria
scale of migration
in 2015 1,014,836 migrants arrived in Europe by sea
747,981 arrived in Greece via Lesvos
Push and Pull factors
Push: War has uprooted 5.5m people during the first 6 months of 2014.
Push: economic chaos, war and human rights abuses, conflict and civil breakdown in Syria.
3 million Syrians have fled abroad to the neighboring Jordan and Turkey.
Pull of Europe: perceived employment opportunities and quality of life.
Pull factors are sufficient to justify the intervening obstacles.
Pull: higher human development index.
UK GDP per capita is 6x more than Eritrea.
Population below poverty line is 4x more in Eritrea than UK
Longer life expectancy, security and healthcare in UK and MEDC European countries.
Minimum wage 55x higher in UK than Eritrea (pull factor)
Mediterranean sea: most popular route, poses great risk. Most boats used are overcrowded and inappropriate for the distance travelled. More than 2,500 have died trying to cross the Mediterranean sea
mid- October 2015 Hungarian borders effectively closed preventing migrants being able to cross into Austria and Germany
EU convention stated that the migrants had to seek asylum in the EU country they first arrived in but many arrived first in Greece and Italy and did not wish to stay there
In countries like Sweden. Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Austria, Germany
border security along the Balkan route is increased. The welcome is cooling, security checks are getting tougher and people are being turned back
Amnesty International says that immigrants in Turkey are being illegally sent back to Syria and Iraq.
impacts at source
migrants can send back money to their families
Population structure skewed - young families flee leaving elderly
Areas of country left in ruins, environmental effects
Degredation of towns and cities
Economic development is slowed, economically active people leave
impacts on host families
political unrest: the opposition parties will start scapegoating.
the high influx of people and scale of migration could produce a labour surplus and high levels of unemployment in the country
social disparity: country loses its cultural identity, discrimination and xenophobia develop
crime rates might increase due to the social gaps and discrimination
as the migrants are often the young population, this means that the population growth will increase.
migrants provide young, cheap source of unskilled labour for industries and service activities and this fills up unwanted jobs and spaces in the economy
this increases their production rate. IN Italy migrants contribute to 12% of the GDP.
EU migrants pay more taxes in UK than tehy receive benefits so they aid the financial burden: contributed more than 20bn to public finances