Piaget - Sensory Motor stage. (0-2 years ) (Sub stages of the sensori…
Piaget - Sensory Motor stage.
(0-2 years )
In the sensori-motor stage children develop through intellectual abilities but more through sensations and motor movements
Piaget believed that this stage was active between 0-2 years and is a period of rapid growth.
Babies are born with reflexes and schemas which are the primary sensations and movements that a child develops.
there are different stages of object permanence.
0-4 months - There is no understanding of object permanence as the infant does not have any mental representations.
5-9 months - The position of objects are anticipated but the infant will fail to discover the hidden objects. The infant will often lose interest in the object in this stage.
9-12 months - The child will search and uncover the hidden object. However if they see the object get moved they will only search for the original place. this is known as the A not B error.
12-15 months - Infants begin to search for objects at the location where thy disappeared so they no longer make the A not B error. The understanding of object permanence is still incomplete at this stage.
15- 18 months - At about 18 months a child reliably searches for an object in the correct location, and Piaget believed that this relates to the use of mental representations. a mental representation means that the child is able to remember an object when it is out of sight.
Object permanence is the ability to be aware that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
Object permanence is a key achievement of thee stage.
Sub stages of the sensori-motor stage.
secondary circular action (4-8 months)
- At this stage babies now repeat pleasurable behaviors that involve objects as well as actions involving their own bodies. an example of this is an infant using a rattle to hear the noise for pleasure.
Reflex Acts (0-1 moths)
- This is the stage of the innate reflexes. For example, when you place an object in a babies hand thy will grasp it automatically
Primary circular reactions (1-4 months)
- within this stage the baby co-ordinates sensations and new schemas simply for pleasure. For example kicking their legs and sucking their thumb for pleasure.
co-ordinating of reactions (8-12 months)
- Instead of simply prolonging interesting event, babies in this stage how signs of the ability to use their acquired knowledge to achieve a goal. for example, within this stage, an infant will not just shake a rattle but will move one object away in order to get the rattle.
Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months)
- Within this stage, children engage n trial and error behavior. They will use different actions to see the effects.
Early representation though (18-24 months)
- at this stage in a child development, children can now form new mental representations of objects.
Evaluation of the Sensori-motor stage
Piaget does noot consider social interactions. The rate of learning may be impacted by interactions with others. Piaget sees children as central to their own cognitive development.
Piaget has contradictory evidence demonstrating the earlier development of object permanence, this, therefore, challenges his stage theory validity.
The problem with Piaget's account of object permanence is that failure to search might indicate several things besides the lack of an object concept. for example, the child has been distracted or has lost interest.
Piaget's methods were unscientific leading to poor reliability and generalisability
General Symbolic Function.
In the latter part of this stage general symbolic function is established.
mental images represent objects that a child has experienced
children no longer need a Physical stimulus to make them think about it,
This is when chemas become internal rather than external
Research within the sensori-motor stage.
Blanket and Ball study (Piaget)
- Piaget wanted to investigate at what age children acquire object permanence.
- Piaget hid a toy under a blanket, while the child was watching, and observed whether or not the child searched for the hidden toy. Searching for the hidden toy would be evidence of object permanence.
- Piaget found that infants searched for hidden toy when they were around 8 months old
Baillargeon et al
- the researcher familiarized five-month-old infants with a drawbridge that moved 180 degrees. A coloured box was placed in the path of the drawbridge. The infants then either witnessed a possible event or and impossible event.
- The infants looked at the impossible event longer than the possible event.
- The infants looked at the impossible event because they were surprised. They were aware the box was behind the drawbridge and knew that the drawbridge should be able to pass through it. Therefore the five-month-old infants had object permanence.
Hayn, boniface bd Barr
- showed infants a sequence of movements with a toy puppet.
- 24 hours later 6-8 and 12 month old infants could perform the same sequence of events.
- the results suggested tthat the infants were able to form a new mental representation to remember the sequence.