POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT ACROSS LIFESPAN :baby: :girl::skin-tone-4::man::skin-tone-2: :older_woman:
POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT ACROSS LIFESPAN
:baby: :girl::skin-tone-4::man::skin-tone-2: :older_woman:
Each generation taking responsibility to bear, nurture and guide the next, and to maintain social institutions/resources for them
pattern of positive adaptations in the face of adversity or risk
FACTORS (Werner, 1995)
Having religious beliefs. :pray:
Optimism, internal locus of control and positive self-concept. :smile:
Availability of outlets to focus on (e.g. hobbies). :fishing_pole_and_fish:
Structure, male role models and encouragement of emotional expressiveness (for boys). :boy::skin-tone-2:
Good social and communication skills, with at least one good friend. :couple:
Employed mothers, emphasising risk taking and reliable support from an older female (for girls). :girl::skin-tone-4:
Ability to detach from unhealthy relationships and finding supportive surrogate (e.g. teacher).
FLOURISHING & THRIVING WITH AGE
Accepting that certain capacities will decline but finding ways to compensate :arrow_right: enjoyment of activities that gives sense of satisfaction.
:arrow_right: Higher levels of Subjective Well-being
Older adults maintain fewer, but more intimate, social relationships, recognise emotions better and regulate emotions in more adaptive ways.
Drive for information and developing positive self-concept becomes less important with age, but drive for emotional self-regulation rises
having exceptional knowledge about conditions of life and human affairs
Finding meaning in positive and negative life experiences and have self-effacing sense of humour :arrow_right: better life satisfaction
Predictors (Baltes and Staudinger, 2000):
POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH
Positive mental health is a product of specific personality traits/character:-
Heathy defence mechanism
Strengths and virtues
Innate needs drive search for positive mental health:-
Fully functioning person
FULLY FUNCTIONING PERSON
When one can integrate all his or her relevant experiences into a coherent and flexible self-concept :arrow_right: mental health fully :arrow_right: functioning person.
Willing to risk security of the known/comfortable for potential growth that comes from embracing new challenges.
Correlates positively with indices of mental health.
TRAITS (of Self-Actualising People)
Openness to Experience
•Efficient perception of reality
•Acceptance (self, others and nature)
•Continued freshness of appreciation
• Democratic character
• Discrimination between means and ends
Positive Relationship with Others
Philosophical, unhostile humour
•Independence of culture and environment
•Resistance to enculturation
•Need for privacy
STRENGTHS AND VIRTUES
Authentic happiness is found by identifying and cultivating one’s fundamental strengths and using them in the everyday contexts
involves using one’s signature strengths to obtain gratifications in important areas of life
involves using signature strengths in service of something larger than individual self.
involves feeling and savouring positive feelings about past, present and future to obtain gratifications.
HEALTHY DEFENCE MECHANISMS
Extreme distortion of reality (e.g. delusional projection or psychotic denial)
Acts of projection, hypochondriasis, passive-aggression and acting-out
Normal acts (e.g. reaction, intellectualisation, repression, displacement, dissociation)
Maximising gratification but being aware of underlying feelings (e.g. altruism, sublimation, anticipation, humour)
POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
ORGANISED YOUTH ACTIVITIES
Prepare young people to be psychologically vibrant adults who contribute to the well-being of society.
Participation in the activities :arrow_right: lead to
later educational achievements,
voluntarism in adulthood
•Capacity to organise effort to achieve a goal (esp. when dealing with challenges).
•Developing future time perspective - learn that success correlates with effort invested.
•Learning to plan, taking into account multiple stakeholders.
•Developing linguistic tool for logistic thinking (e.g. scenario planning and using “if-then” sentence).
Success at tasks as the result of their behaviour (e.g. being disciplined) internalising a general sense of themselves as responsible.
Transformation of motivation
•Learning to be motivated by challenge and to enjoy work itself (towards intrinsic motivation).
•Application of flow theory.
Acquisition of social capital
Building connections with highly resourced adults who can provide information/resources to work in the adult worlds (building and using networks).
Bridging differences among peers
Interacting with, learning about and changing thinking about people who are different from them :arrow_right: learning to respect and be sensitive.
ROLE OF ADULT LEADERS
Monitoring activities and intervening (without undercutting youth’s work/goals), if needed.
Structuring tasks to make them manageable, based on youth’s abilities.
Cultivating norms that emphasise youth input and culture of taking ownership/responsibility.
Stretching and pushing youths beyond their comfort zones.
Supporting goals and directions set by youth (providing help and support).