Handel - And the Glory of the Lord (Harmony and tonality (The piece…
Handel - And the Glory of the Lord
Harmony and tonality
The piece modulates (changes key) to keys which are closely related to A major. These are the dominant (5th degree - E major) and the dominant of the dominant (the 5th degree of E major which is B major).
There are perfect (V-I), imperfect (?-V) and plagal (IV-I) cadences at the end of phrases and sections.
The movement is in A major and stays major throughout, although it does change key.
Pedal notes are used where a bass note is repeated (see idea 4) while the chords change in the other parts (e.g. b.53-55 and 125-126 inverted pedal!).
Instrumentation and voices
accompanied by Strings (violins, violas) and Basso Continuo (cello and harpsichord or organ)
chorus made up of Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass voices (often shortened to SATB).
Elsewhere in Messiah, Timpani and Trumpets are used for uplifting effect.
This chorus is based on four contrasting melodic ideas
Idea 2: Descending sequence: Melismatic word setting
Idea 3: Repetition for emphasis.
Idea 1: Starts with A major triad. Syllabic word setting
Idea 4: Long repeated notes. Syllabic word setting.
Rhythm and Metre
Driving regular on-beat rhythms give a stately feel.
Use of Hemiola (36-37) - 2 bars of 3/4 sound like 3 bars of 2/4.
Time signature 3/4 Triple time
Tempo: Allegro. Lively, fast dance tempo to suit the joyous mood.
1-11 (Introduction) 1 and 2 (b.7-8)
11-38 1 and 2
38-43 (Instrumental link) 2
43-73 3 and 4
74-75 (Instrumental link) 1
76-86 1 and 3
102-123 1, 2 and 3
123-138 3 (words of 4) and 4
Keys and cadences
1-22 A major 21-22 Perfect in E (Vb-I)
22-43 E major 42-43 Perfect in E (V-I)
43-66 A major 46-47 Perfect in A
66-67 E major Perfect in E
67-94 B major 67-68 Perfect in B 72-73 Perfect in B (Vc-I)
82-83 Imperfect in B
94-102 E major 93-94 Perfect in E
102 - 138 A major (D natural in 108)
123-124 Imperfect in A
136-138 Ends with a triumphant plagal cadence.