Chapter 8 Notes (How is Space Politically Organized into States and…
Chapter 8 Notes
How is Space Politically Organized into States and Nations?
state- a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory and a government
territory- a system of political units came into being with fixed, distinct boundaries and at least a quasi-independent governement
nation state- a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space
democracy- the idea that the people are the ultimate soveriegn
multinational state- a state with more than one nation inside its borders
multitstate nation- when a nation stretches across borders and across states
stateless nation- a nation that does not have a state
colonialism-the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
world systems theory-- 1-the world economy has one market and a global division of labor 2-although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy 3-the world economy has a 3 tier structure
capitalism- in the world economy, individuals, corporations, and states produce goods and services that are exchanged for profit
commodification- the process of placing a price on a good, service, or idea and then buying, selling, and trading that item
How Do States Spatially Organize Their Governments?
centripetal forces- forces within the state that unify the people
centrifugal forces- forces within a state that divides the people
devolution- the movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the states
reapportionment- the process by which districts are moved according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
major minority districts- packed districts in which a majority of the population is from the minority
gerrymandering- redistricting for advantage
gemoetric boundaries- when boundaries are drawn using grid systems such as lattitude and longitude or township and range
physical/political boundaries- boundaries that follow an agreed-upon feature in the natural landscape, such as the center point of a river or crest of a mountain range
How Does The Study of Geopolitics Help Us Understand The World?
critical geopolitics- intellectuals of statecraft construct ideas about geographical circumstances and places, these ideas influence and reinforce their political behaviors, and policy choices, and then affect what happens and how most people interpret what happens