Challenge 3: Independent Institution (Strategies to reform Clientelistic…
Challenge 3: Independent Institution
Abt Associates Inc.
Assessment & Programming
Clientelistic vs Democratic
Clientelistic: Brazil mayor example; don't change the culture, change the outlook
Patrimonial vs Rational-legal Bureaucratic
Economic cost of corruption in China is 2-3% of its GDP growth (Hodess et al. 20011)
Clientelism and Patrimonialism in practice
State collapse in Sierra Leone as state sees effective administration as threat to their power
Stop-and-go reform & Weak Implementation capacity
Bolivia Finance Ministry delayed financial admin law reform
Lebanese civil war due to state's focus on ethnic clientelistic network degenerated into rival sectarian militias
breeds inequality to people who have nothing to bargain
prosperous people who lack patronage due to ethnicity, reduced access to work / land
Strategies to reform Clientelistic systems
Morocco, difficult to unveil past corruption when democracy sets in.
Can we instead of digging out past mistakes, focus on taking good care of the resources we have now???
India sugar cane, lower caste cannot afford to bribe, however democratization has made it unnecessary to bribe.
Remove the human element of government???
Kerala, India saw and increase participation from grassroot groups in policy formulation (Heller 2001)
Porto Alegre, Brazil. State did participatory budgeting state won next 3 election, improved public confidence to pay tax,
a notable change in attitudes of public officials.
Civil Service Reform
Nepal public ministers has seperate terms from electrolal cycle. Good example on the seperation of powers.
Islands of Integrity among civil servants
Self-financing agency must perform well to stay afloat. (Stapenhurst, Kpundeh 1999)
Programming for the Office of Democracy and Governance
Information dissemination and civic education
Pockets of reform . islands of alternative systems
Increased competition to generate multiple nodes of alternative political power
Greatest progress towards democratic governance is with support from national elites and community organisation.
Independent Accountability Institutions (IAI)
Method 1: Create new branch of government to existing administrative...Venezuela and Ecuador
Method 2: Group all agency under single heading in constitution
Method 3: Ad hoc creation
Innovation from global south: African nations
Opposition to IAI
Created by existing governments to boost legitimacy without making actual changes
"A way around the problem", not addressing the actual problem
How to make IAI work
Presence of institution in society
Can be 'the' institution that brings real change
Show legitimacy thru concrete outcome and extreme caution against negative news
Agency's influence over other departments
Independence bring difficulty in getting budget and coercive powers
Get other source of political support: civil society
Free from political quid pro quo
2nd order accountability
Set up permanent watch on own activity
Total commitment to transparency
After a while IAI loose fresh perspectives, bravery, focus on central issues
Actively fight against anti-accountability backlash
Nations that use IAI
New transitioning nations
Nations undergone internal strife with foreign involvement
Long standing democracies after a radical political reform
Thorough detailed research on IAI design
Create protection from normal politics
Find innovative ways to incorporate IAI into existing institutional structure
Rulers capture States
Resources Curse (Martin Subramaniam 2003)
Predatory rulers extract rent