- Rail and water transports
traditionally used for lower-value commodities
- Air transports used for highly perishable and higher value commodities
strategy to gain more bargaining power; this leads to a decrease in the number of food wholesalers
"transportation of freight (merci) using multiple modes of transportation without handling any freight itself"
Multi-dimensional sustainability standards!!!
- Profitability --> "Cost-savings"
- % food lost due to mishandling
- Transport efficiency
- CO2 emissions: (Carbon footprint)
CO2-eq estimation (translate other gases into CO"-measures)
- Energy consumption:
Fuels needed for transportation + Energy requiered for storage conditions
Fossil fuels used and resulting greenhouse gas emissions are key issues.
- Food miles:
"Distance that food travels to get from place to place"
However, sourcing for more local food will not necessarily lead to a lower environmental impact.
- Water use
- Land usage
- Nutrional value of food
- Local autonomy
- Local employment
The company focuses on internal waste and emission reductions in order to reduce costs.
Furthermore, external cooperation may help in improving logistics processes.
Together with the SC partners, the company aims to gain competitive advantage by branding the sustainable performance (Sustainable labeling, such as the "lean and green award")
- Profound variability of local conditions throughout the world
- Specialty products
(es. PDO, PGI....)
- Importance of coordinated localized markets