Fallacies in General
May be identified by merely examining the form or structure of an argument
Only in deductive arguments
Can be detected only by examining the content of the argument
Fallacies of Relevance
The arguments have premises that are logically irrelevant to the conclusion.
(Emotional connection between premises and conclusion)
Appeal to force
Arguer poses a conclusion to another person and tells that person that some harm will come to him or her if he or she does not accept the conclusion
Appeal to pitty
Attempts to support a conclusion by merely evoking pity for the reader or listener
Appeal to the people
Uses peoples desires to be loved, esteemed, admired, valued, recognised and accepted to get the people accept a conclusion.
: Addressing a large group of people -> mob mentality
Addressing one or more individuals separately
Appeal to vanity: "if you join the marine, you too will be admired"
Appeal to snobbery: "Rolex is not for everyone, but a selected few"
Argument Against the Person
(Argumentum ad Hominem)
Addresses attention not to the argument of a person, but the person that posed the argument.
Ad hominem abusive: Verbally abuses the arguer
Ad hominem circumstantial: "Of course X argues this way; just look at the circumstances that affect him"
Tu quoque fallacy: Attempts to make the arguer appear hypocritical or in bad faith
When a general rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover
Accidental feature of the specific case makes an exception to the rule
An arguer distorts an opponents argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it
demolishes the distorted argument
then concludes that the proponents real argument was demolished
Sets up a "straw man" in order to knock him down, claiming that the real man was knocked down as well
Missing the Point
The premises of an argument support one particular conclusion, but then a different vaguely related conclusion is being drawn.
The arguer diverts the attention of the reader or listener by changing the subject to a different but sometimes subtly related one
Must change the original subject of the argument without the listener noticing
Fallacies of Weak Induction
The connection between premises and conclusion is not strong enough to support the conclusion
Appeal to Unquantified Authority
(Argumentum ad Verecundiam)
When the cited authority or witness lacks credibility
Appeal to Ignorance
Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
When the premises of an argument state that nothing has been proved one way or the other about something, and the conclusion then makes a definite assertion about that thing
Hasty Generalisation (Converse Accident)
Affects inductive generalisations
-> There is a reasonable likelihood that the sample is not representative of the group