Two macrostructural rules
The pyramid rule
The higher up the argument is places in the argument tree, the more general and abstract it should be
When two arguments are placed on the same level, they should have the same level of abstraction
The MECE rule
(Mutually Exclusive, collectively Exhaustive)
Within each group, the reasons or objections should be different from one another.
All conceivable arguments that are relevant to the claim are brought to bear, leaving no gaps in the argument three. Less important arguments can be left out.
Argument in which reasons or objections have drawn out new reasons or objections.
When a reason is followed by an objection within an argument
Counterargument to a premise
Shows that the reasons contention is false.
Attacks the content of the premise
Counterargument to a conclusion
Contention proposed in the reason might be correct, but the conclusion does not provide enough proof to support the conclusion
It attacks the argument
A counter argument is itself rejected within an argument. If the second objection is correct the refutation means that the first objection can be ignored.
Refutation of a premise
Refutation of a conclusion