Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Peripheral Nervous System
Network of glands that releases hormones into the bloodstream
Network of glands that releases
into the bloodstream
Molecules that influence particular organs
Different to neurotransmitters as they are carried through blood vessels, not nerves, so are much slower.
Responsible for several reproductive functions, including stretching the cervix and vagina during birth and aiding milk flow in nursing mothers.
Also linked to loyalty in romantic partners where the oxytocin receptors are linked to the dopamine system
Testosterone and Oestrogen
Controls other glands in the body and is controlled by the hypothalamus
Produces a variety of hormones
Tissues located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline and cortisol during states of emotional arousal.
Actions triggered by release of Adrenline
Contraction of the heart muscle and constriction of blood vessels to provide more blood to body
of the lungs to allow inhalation of more air
Breakdown of fat into fatty acids, providing more fuel
to energise muscles
Opening the pupils of the eye to enable better sight in low levels of light during emergencies
Boosts energy production in muscle cells, while conserving as much energy as possible outside of these muscles cells
Inhibits gastrointestinal secretions, reducting appetite (as evidenced by loss of appetite before exams, dates)
Allows people to perform amazing feats in crisis situations (constrained by physical limits)
Increases in response to physical and psychological stress, regulates blood pressure and cardiovascular function, as well as the body's use of proteins, carbs and fats.
Autonomic Nervous System
Interacts with the brain, especially the Limbic System, to control emotion and internal physical states, as well as the involuntary actions of our organs and glands.
Interacts in opposing directions, when one is active the other is passive
Threatening situations activate the Sympathetic Nervous System
Active during emotinal arousal
Activation triggers a variety of physical responses, which are triggered by autonomic nerves
Increased heart rate
Active during rest and digestion
Somatic Nervous System
Carries messages from the CNS to muscles throughout the body, controlling movement and executing the movements our brain has triggered