Classical Greece. 450-400 BC (Architecture and Architectural Sculpture…
Classical Greece. 450-400 BC
Mature Doric Architecture, Rich sculptural decorations, new sophisticated architecture on the Acropolis.
Athens as the center of creativity and cultural activity in Greece.
Classical period is characterized by the urge to fuse the real and the ideal
Period dominated by the Pelopennesian War, Won't go into detail, note already available
Athenian Empire vs Sparta and her allies
Athenian fleet destroyed at Hellespont 405 BC
Classical expression was forged during the Persian wars and continued well beyond the Peloponnesian War.
Late 5th century, Perikles set in motion a great program of the reconstruction of the Acropolis, using money contributed by the states of the Empire
The center piece was the Parthenon which was built between 447 and 432 BC
Improvements in sculptural drapery, giving a greater sense of light and shade
Sculptures still unrealistic, no expressions, uncomplicated muscularity and an unbroken profile line of nose and brow
Drapery sweeps vigorously on the body, allowing the observer the see the limbs beneath.
Sculptures wanted to create an ideal of youth and beauty, acceptable by the gods; since the gods are shown in human form
However, human anatomy is accurately shown and movement is naturalistic, though expressions are distant and the mood is otherwordly
Polykleitos was a Greek sculptor who was know for having tried to combine ideal and real in single images. Created mostly bronze sculptures
The Kanon of Polykleitos, one of his few surviving art, though it was found to be a replica, no originals survive
Architecture and Architectural Sculpture
The Parthenon included 8 columns on the facade,which was unusual, and 17 columns on the peristyle.
Double story Doric colonnade in the Cella surrounding the statue
Row of columns behind the statue, a new development
Many Friezes built around buildings and on the interior
Terracota still popular for decorations and public buildings
Use of Ionic columns in the interior. Ionic still being introduced.
Seen as a gift to Athena and as a treasury
More detailed notes are written down :warning:
Some examples: Temple of Athena Nike (420 BC). The Erectheion (430-406 BC),the Agora (430-420 BC) and the Hephaisteion (450-415 BC)
Development of the White-Ground technique with Black figure painting.
White ground was considered too fragile, not viable for large pots which were used a lot such as a Krater.
Mostly used in Lekythoi, tall flasks used to store oil, which were also regularly deposited in graves
These usually showed scenes of the funerary context
Continued use of red-figure painting, however demand was in decline
Signatures of painters and potters was also disappearing by the early 4th century BC.
Achilles painter, red-figure style 440BC
Accurate representation of anatomy, deep carving of folds in the drapery, ideal calm mood.
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Athenian potters also made simple wares, vases decorated in a plain, shiny, tough black gloss. Came in all shapes and sizes and used in pouring and drinking of wine, water and olive oil. The gloss was also used in table ware.
More utilitarian vessels were made out of coarse clay, though these course wares already exited a long time. Amphoras were made out of coarse clay and were undecorated, used to transport wine and olive oil.
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