CT5 Rhetoric and the Preparation of Debate (Contra (indirect ( If we…
CT5 Rhetoric and the Preparation of Debate
Brybaert: What is Science?
8.1 Science is based on observable facts
From deductive reasoning to observation and experimentation
Logical positivism and the first attempt to define what exactly constitutes the scientific method
→ verificationism, observation, induction, verific...
8.2 Problems with the view that scientific knowledge can be produced from facts alone
Perception requires interpretation
Verifiable perceptions are no guarantee for a correct understanding
Scientific theories are full of non-observable variables
Verification is logically impossible
8.3 Science is theory driven
Popper: falsification instead of verification
Falsificationism by itself does not lead to the correct explanation; it only eliminates wrong ideas.
8.4 Science is a succession of paradigms
The general layout of Kuhn’s theory
On the relativity of paradigms and science
In search of middle ground
8.5 Focus on: Is there room for pragmatism?
pragmatism: knowledge arises from the interaction of the individual with the world
write down three main contentions
Lakatos: Science and Pseudoscience
cognitive value of a theory
first scientists contended that their theories had scientific status if they were based on facts
Popper says that a theory's status is independent of the facts → theory must be falsifiable
not enough: scientists are tenacious
research programmes vs hypotheses
auxillary belt, heuristics
In a progressive research programme, theory leads to the discovery of hitherto unknown novel facts.
In degenerating programmes, however, theories are fabricated only in order to accommodate known facts.
so-called 'refutations' are not the hallmark of empirical failure, as Popper has preached, since all programmes grow in a permanent ocean of anomalies. What really counts are dramatic, unexpected, stunning predictions: a few of them are enough to tilt the balance; where theory lags behind the facts, we are dealing with miserable degenerating research programmes.
Q: What is the foundation of all conclusions
Candidates for a bridge between instances and general rule
• (1) Similar causes have similar effects
• (2) Nature is uniform
• (3) The future will resemble the past
• (4) The future will be conformable to the past
An observation does not show that something is a certain way since we don't know whether in this case this observation came about through different causes.
We are basing our assumption that this observation shows that what we're assuming to be there is there, on the assumption that our observation can only have came about through what we're assuming to be there.
Europe should only let in refugees who are emancipated and non-homophobic.
not limited socially or politically
freed from custom or social restraints
what to think about
advantages (parties, SPERM)
direct (as following from action)
indirect (as following from other results/reactions)
of h&n-e refugees being here
of h&n-e refugees not being granted asylum
families will be torn apart
rejecting certain refugees will show them how is it being mistreated for your beliefs
Letting h&n-e refugees in will slow down the movements towards a liberal society
will raise acceptance for refugees
→ no argument of rapists, etc
better for homosexual citizen's,women
less costs for the state
less trouble in socially weak neighborhoods, etc, school,
The Netherlands have signed the UDHR, which grants the right to seek asylum, regardless of whether the people seeking refuge are homophobic or emancipated. Therefore, we should accept such refugees.
If we reject refugees based on their beliefs, we might be rejected ourselves when we would seek refuge based on our beliefs
since more educated refugees will seek asylum
→ brain drain
testing for h&n-e is costly
our own laws do not forbid being homophobic and non-emancipated
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
less refugee to fill wage-gap
refugees that homophobic and non-emancipated at the moment might become so in the future
since many of their cultures are h&n-e, they will just take some time
we have certainly contributed to a lot of causes that make people seek refuge
Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from
This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely
arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Ethos, Logos & Pathos
Figures of Speech
repetitio, anaphora, rule of three, chiasmus, rhetorical question, metaphor, tautology, pleonasm, hyperbole, enumeration, paradox, understatement, euphemism, oxymoron, litotes