High middle ages and feudalism (Feudal system (Political, social and…
High middle ages and feudalism
Caliphate didved by internal fights
The Turks, the most important group → took control
created independent states, governed by a
New caliphates: Fatimid or Almoravid
10th-13th: attacks from Christians
● 13th: invaded by the Mongols
Byzantine Empire: attacks from the turks
Carolingian Empire → Holy Roman Empire (962).
Less territory, less power held by the emperor
● Zaragoza conquered in 1118
● 1139 Kingdom of Portugal became independent
● Amohads → Al-Andalus +North of Africa, capital in Sevilla
Rest of the world
● Thanks to trade, new kingoms in the Sahel zone
They converted to Islam
Their lands were incorporated into the Muslim trade routes.
● Mongols in Central Asia → invaded China, Muslim
Caliphate and Eastern Europe (13th).
● Chinese Empire, India, Indochina.
● Central America: Toltec and Mayan
● South America: Inca
Political, social and economic system
in the Christian kingdoms during the High Middle
Ages.Characterised by the monarchs' loss of power,
The monarchs governed with the aid of:
● The court
● Royal officials
The origins of feudalism
● Division of the Carolingian Empire → Europe suffered attacks. Villages and cities were sacked.
● Monarchs didn't have resources to help their subjects
● Monarch divided the lands among the
● Power became hereditary
● Absolute power over the inhabitants of their lands
Fiefdom : was the
land owned by the feudal lord.
● Serfs: were the peasants that
lived and worked in the
● Power of the nobility
It consisted on:
● Places of comunal use
Organisation of the Church
Two branches of the clergy:
● Secular clergy: bishops and priests. In
charge of ceremonies and religious
● Regular clergy: : abbots, monks and
The political power of the Church
● Church and political power were very close → monarchs
appointed bishops & bishops.
● The Pope could excommunicate
● The economic power of the Church
● Monarchs and nobles gave lands and fiefs to the Church to
win its favour or obtain salvation
Culture and the Church
● Responsible of spreading
● Responible for education →
● Fear of hell
● Fear of the end of the
● Hope for the mediation of
saints and the Virgin Mary
The life of the privileged estates
The nobles spent their time hunting and training to use weapons and handle horses.
The life of the unprivileged estate
The unprivileged estate worked from sunrise to sunset.
● SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY
● Agriculture techniques:
● Three-year crop rotation (winter and spring cereals)
● Irrigation techniques
● Mouldboard plough
● Manure (animal excrement) as fertiliser
● Free peasants, craftsmen and