What are the most important philosophers and their ideas? (Aristotle…
What are the most important philosophers and their ideas?
Theory of forms
Empirical world = inferior manifestation of pure forms
Ideas existing regardless of the empirical world
2 worlds: world of
(= ideas existing in the abstract world and that are perfect -->
= truth is ideas) and
matter interacting with senses and less perfect than ideas. --> Knowledge through reason =
Allegory of the cave
allegory representing how people confuse world of appearence with real world(pure forms)
Men living in a cave thinking the real world composed by shadows, discovers true world
The divided line
reality divided into 2 realms:
(= material world) and
realms (=world of ideas). Higher knowledge in trascendent
material realm --> imagining and belief. true knowledge not attainable.
trascendent realm --> thinking and intelligence of knowledge
The good and the forms of the good
(= objects of intelligence of knowledge) highest parts of knowledge. for connecting all forms.
sensory experience reminding of knowledge already present in soul but forgot because of body
soul immortal =
body and mind independent =
Nature of the soul
soul in three parts:
Rational part should dominate
senses can be trusted and knowledge from observation =
(= from specific to general)
studying nature and believing in one world
(=material of thing)
(=form of thing)
(=by whom thing made)
(=purpose of thing)
=everything has a purpose.
= built-in purpose
Hierarchy of soul
= one of plants
--> of animals
--> of humans
=mechanism coordinating information from senses
=using experience for everyday life
memory and recall
=mental search of past experience
Laws of association
=laws about how we learn
=spontaneous recollection of past experience
= process to get to clear and distinct idea
= body and mind interact -->
=studying structure of consciousness. Body physical, mind not. Point of interaction = pineal gland
senses can be trusted but info must be
(=represented clearly in consciousness) and
(=unquestionable and not divisible for further analysis)
Reflexes in body like machine ->
= everything predetermined and outcomes can be predicted.
=ideas already present in us-->
=we have innate ideas
Mathematical knowledge most important
Doubt existing but sure about
Cogito ergo sum
= I think therefore I am-->
and innate ideas not existing =
ideas from sensation or reflection of sensory stimuli
operations of mind innate -->partially a
= knowledge innate
=cannot be divided further.
=composed by simple ones.
= objects making you produce ideas.
=ideas about physical objects.
=ideas not corresponding to any physical object.
=association is the principle of life
Feelings of pain and pleasure both in simple and complex ideas and forming together love, hatred,etc..
= strong perceptions.
= weak perceptions
same distinction of complex and simple ideas as in Locke. Imagination to rearrange ideas.
Laws of association
to connect ideas (resemblance, contiguity, cause and effect).
=observations of experience and behavior. Empiricist.
Analysis of causation
= causation inferable just when observed consistently. Then can make predictions -->
mind = cognitive processes -->
= complex phenomena explained just by analyzing simple ones
everyone with passions but to different degrees --> respond differently