Hellenistic Period 323-31 BC
Hellenistic Period 323-31 BC
Begins with the death of Alexander. Ends with the battle of Actium. (Roman Republic vs Mark Anthony's forces
Rise of Emperor Augustus (Octavian)
146BC, Corinth was sacked by the Romans and looted many works of art.
The battle of Actium marked the end and absorption of the Hellenistic kingdoms, creating the Roman Empire.
Dissemination (spreading) of Macedonian and Greek ideas across Alexander's empire
The empire was divided among Alexander's generals. The new kingdoms were hostile towards each other.
Syria was the largest kingdom
Athens still enjoyed cultural prestige, even though it lost political significance in the new larger world, and faced continuous internal fighting between pro and anti-Macedonian princes.
Princes who went to Athens for their education, funded architectural projects and sent gifts to Athens. These gifts were found to be from Pergamon, Egypt, Syria and Cappadocia.
Period different from others, Large kingdoms instead of city states, new centers of architectural development since there was no space left in cities like Athens
Realism in sculpture and portraiture Renewed interest in science.
3rd century BC, Attalid dynasty established in Pergamon
The city was built on a steep landscape, unlike past rules, gymnasium and sanctuary built down the hill with the city as the crown of the hill
Stoas (covered walkways), sheltered shops and offices
The panning of the terraces, the co-ordination of the natural setting with man made spaces and the placement of buildings is what made the upper city of Pergamon so novel and dynamic.
2nd quarter of the 3rd century BC: new temple of Athena built, a small doric building.
Columns of the peristyle are set further apart and are slimmer with greater height. Doric rare in Hellenistic times with Ionic being more popular. Corinthian would become the favorite of the Romans.
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Capital of a Hellenistic kingdom, had great wealth and power
Their city challenged Athens and Alexandria in architecture, sculpture and learning
End of 4th Century BC, Painted pottery gave way to mold made bowls with relief decoration.
Great commercial success across the Hellenistic world from the 3rd-1st century BC, thought to be made originally from bowls made of precious metals . Technique also picked up by the Romans creating Arretine tableware/Terra Sigilata
Consisted mostly of floral decoration with occasionally figures. Even musical instruments appear as decorations
Dark ground pottery was still produced in the west 3rd Century BC. With Greek west slope ware still being produced in the east
West slope ware.
Typically decorated the black surface with floral designs in white and continued into the 1st century BC.
New Jug shape, the Lagynos
Decorated with brown paint on a thick white slip. Decorated with objects related to feasting and garlands of wreaths.
The Centuripe Vase
Sicily, 3rd century BC. A polychrome funerary vase with a white ground slip, with molded additions.
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Terra Sigilata ware