- That area not taken up by visual or typographical
a visual hierarchy.
- Create calm areas within a design that can establish
- Can be utilised to provide a resting place for the
by white space.
- Unobtrusive organiser - Arrange difference elements
luxury. It is efficient, clean, clear and cheap.
- Suggest a feel of affluence, high image, quality and
- Tactics to save readers’ time & effort:
- Place the table of contents as close to the cover as
features in the same place (page) each issue.
- Put departments / segments, columns or regular
same * page as it text citation.
- Established a design look, stand by it.
- Properly align visually supportive elements on the
- Eliminate or minimize jumps.
- Show unity throughout spread.
- Establish a style book and stick to it.
All pages have thickness.
Paper texture affect the message. e.g. newsprint vs.
Think of articles as a series of pages that flow into
your publication, planned it from start-to-finish as a
Headlines, copy areas, artwork and variety of
graphics should combine, be in harmony.
Disproportion - similar to incongruity and like imbalance.
It calls attention to itself by disorienting our sense of
scale. E.g. illustration, caricature.
Imbalance- creates tension, lop-lopsidedness, visual
imposition, and haphazard visual arrangement
Isolation- convey emphasis by contrast, scale, space,
and uses ground neutrally. Only isolates one element,
similar to simplicity.
Selective Focus- using lens. Wide aperture setting blur
the foreground and background, leaving only what was
focused clear to our vision
Ragged/ uneven edges, unusual shapes, or even
border- as our eyes like order, something out of the
ordinary can catch our eye
area, size, line, weight, shape, or location of the
element according to its importance
Golden Mean/ Golden Section
a straight line (or a rectangle) is divided into two
unequal parts in such a way, that the ratio of the smaller
part is the same as that of the greater part to the whole
Divide the page into one-third (1/3) or two-third (2/3)
sections. The larger section will carry the more
important element/ information.