CHAPTER 2 Ecology of Socialization (2-3 Agents of Socialization (2.3A…
CHAPTER 2 Ecology of Socialization
Brofenbrenner's Ecological Theory
takes into account the role of the child influenced by biological factors, in his or her developmental outcomes
Cofounded the Head Start Preschool Program began in 1965 Part of Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty
Author of many books and articles
Advocated to support families not break them up
2-1 Socialization Processes
dynamic and reciprocal Dynamic: the aims and methods change as do children Reciprocal: in that children contribute to their own developmental outcomes. (Laible& Thompson)
Affected by biological, sociocultural, and interactive factors.
experience-expectant : The neural connections that develop under genetic influence, independent of experience, activity or stimulation.
Experience-dependent The neural connections that develop in response to experience.
significant in learning to adapt
Genetics, evolution, hormones
individual life history. Child's receptivity to socialization. Temperament or exposed to extreme maltreatment
Aims of Socialization
Develop a self-concept, enable self-regulation, empower achievement, teach appropriate social roles, and implement developmental skills. (Laible & Thompson, 2007)
"looking glass self"
: an individual's perception of their identity as distinct from others.
Adolescence: self - concept includes how you relate to others. Being a member of a group is important to your identity. In later adolescence, your identity includes how you relate to a community. Who am I? Where am I going? How do I get there?
the value one places on one's identity
Sometime between 15 and 18 months-old you understand that you are you. You have a separate identity
Sense of Control or sense of doubt developed if your needs are or are not met by significant others in your life.
8 critical stages in psycosocial development of a human
Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to age 1). Early Childhood: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (ages 2-3). Play Age: Initiative versus Guilt (ages 3-5). School Age: Industry versus Inferiority (ages 6-Puberty). Adolescence: Identity versus Identity Diffusion (Puberty to Age 18+) Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus Isolation (ages 18 to middle Adulthood). Adulthoot: Generativity versus Self-Absorption (Middle Adulthood to Late Adulthood). Senescence: Integrity versus Despair (Late Adulthood to Death).
Exploration time of adolescence is labeled moratorium.The Processes of identity formation are :1)Achievement, (choices explored and commitments made) 2) foreclosure, commitments made without exploring choices. 3) moratorium, exploring coices in order to make commitments. 4) searching moratorium (reevaluating choices and commitments and reexploring choices. 5) diffusion. little choice exploration and no commitments made.
Generativity-an interest in establishing and guiding the next generation. manifest in Adulthood
2-2b Enable Self-Regulation
ability to control one's impulses, behavior and/or emotions until an appropriate time, place, or object is available for expressing them.
implement Developmental Skills
a developmental task is midway between an individual need and a societal demand. The developmental tasks of life are those things one must learn if one is to get along well in society.
2-3 Agents of Socialization
2.3A Family Socialization
Behavior Patterns in culturally diverse families
Orientation:Collectivistic--Individualistic Coping Style: Active--Passive. Attitude toward Authority: Submissive--Egalitarian. Communication Style: Open/Expressive--Restrained/Private
2-3B School and Child Care
Teachers need to understand culture and background of their students.
egocentrism-inability to look at the world from another point of view other han their own
Come to look at themselves from the point of view of the group.
2-3D Mass Media form of communication in which large audiences quickly receive a given message via an impersonal medium between sender and receiver.
2-4 Affective methods of socialization.
affective: having to do with feelings or emotions
Attachment-affectional tie that one person forms to another person binding them together and space and enduring over time.
operant: prodicing an effect Cognative: information processing. Socicultural: cultural traditions
Appretinceship method: guided participation
2-5 Operant positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and shaping: systematic immediate reinforcement.