Classical Period (600 BCE-600 CE) (PERSIAN EMPIRE (550 BCE-336 BC) (Cyrus…
Classical Period (600 BCE-600 CE)
PERSIAN EMPIRE (550 BCE-336 BC)
Started out not very big and grew over 8 million square kilometers.
Centered in modern Iran
; Stretched from Western India almost to modern Greece.
Cyrus the Great
, launched the Persians' imperial venture came from a mountainous region of southwestern Iran; laid the foundation of the first Persian Empire.
Cyrus established a vast empire from India to the borders of Egypt. -----> In 530 he fell, mortally wounded
his body was placed in a tomb at Pasargadae.
Cambyses ---> Cyrus's son; (530-522 BCE) conquered Egypt in 525 BCE.
Darius (521-486 BCE) extended the empire
largest extent of empire with a population of thirty-five million ---> diverse empire with seventy ethnic groups
Persepolis establishment of communication and centralized administration new capital, built around 520 BCE; nerve center of the Persian empire.
administration with networks of educated bureaucrats, tax collectors, and spies
qanats (underground canals) to support agriculture
policies promoting long-distance trade (road building, marketplaces, banks, and investment companies)
Zoroastrianism; teachings demanded high moral and ethical standards.
Persian Religion: Zoroastrianism
---> Monotheistic, Moralistic (Good vs. Evil), may have influenced Hebrews and tolerant of other religions.
series of conflicts that Greeks called the Persian Wars --> (500-479 BCE)
rebellion of the Ionian Greeks, fighting for their independence
Persian rulers failed to put down the rebellion; for almost 150 years the Persian empire sparred with the Greek cities
Persian Wars significance
: 1. The decline of Persia. 2. boost to Athens and development of Delian League.
Athens and Sparta involved in destructive Peloponnesian Wars which weakened all the city states and leaving them vulnerable to the Macedonians.
Greek City States
(600 BCE-330 BCE).
Culturally similar in Language and religion.
Diverse in governing
Athens - monarchy , then aristocracy, tyrants and later democracy.
Sparta - totalitarian, military oligarchy.
Thebes - monarchy
; ifluenced of geography, Athens and Sparta two main city states. POLEIS took many forms: Monarchies , Oligarchies, Aristocracies, and Democracies.
Greece: Social Distinctions
. SPARTA ---> large number of helots. Everyone is equal; simple clothing and no jewelry, home not adorned. Strict educational system.
ATHENS ----> farmers/aristocrats - distinctions led to discontent and reforms.
Slave labor use and women confined to home with servants and no political rights
. Polytheistic, the worship of more than one god . The Natural Law - god's don't cause natural phenomena. The Philosophers pose ethical questions to seek the truth ----> Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
---> war between Athens and Sparta and their allies. Sparta wins, but leaves most of the city states weak. Philip II - King of Macedonia takes advantage of weakness and conquers much of Greece and unites them under his power.
became King at 20 after Phillip's assassination; swore to bring revenge to the Persian Empire who he believed was responsible for his father's death. UNIFIED ALL OF Greece; gathered an army to conquer Persia in 300 BCE
ALEXANDER the GREAT
defeats Darius II and takes over the Persian empire. Moves to expand his territory to Egypt and Northern India
----> Alexander's greatest legacy. A blend of math, science, philosophy, literature, governance, architecture and art of Greece, India, Egypt and Persia
ROMAN HISTORY/CIVILIZATION (509 BCE-476 CE)
Roman army conquered Greece soon after Alexander's death -----> they were heavily influenced by Greek culture. Throughout their vast empire they influenced most of Western Europe, Southwest Asia and North Africa
Roman Classical era
includes both the Republic and the Empire. The assassination of Julius Caesar and the rise of Augustus as emperor mark the shift from Republic to Empire.
----> Used military to protect and expand trade by land and sea. Extended their influence by using diplomats and merchants to brake treaties and trade silk.
The beginning with
n, the empire began to fail to large to manage as a whole. Diocletian divided empire to ease management. Constantine moved capital to
Byzantium (East Rome
) remained for nearly 1,000 years . The
western Roman empire was no more
, original base on east Mediterranean Sea in modern day Lebanon. Great seafarers, etablished colonies across the Med. Sea
They did not use military conquest to gain power. Interested in trade,
became the ''go-betweens''
. Specialized in luxury goods; diamonds, cinnamon, roses and purple die from snails.
Phoenician alphabet was adopted
---> reading from left to right. Phoenician colonies in Greece greatly influenced Greek civilization.
began after the chaos of the Warring States Period (500 BCE-220 BCE) 20 Warlords fighting for power of China, until 220 BCE.
----> The Chinese believed heavens would provide them with a ruler who would establish a family line, a dynasty who would rule until its leaders displeased the powers in heaven.
---> Imposed a tax on landowners and appointed only educated men as officials to run his government. Censored and burned books, people couldn't write about the past.
The First Emperor
----> Qin Shihuangdi ruled with both diplomatic skill and military ruthlessness. The emperor united much of the nation under one strong government
Dynasty didn't last tong 220 BCE - 206 BCE
only fourteen years but despite short length established a solid foundation for Chinese dynastic rule. The most complex bureaucracy in the Classical Era.
The Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE)
roughly contemporary to the Roman empire ----> Roughly as large and as wealthy as the Roman Empire but had an advancement in technology than Rome
extended his power through a mix of diplomacy, trade and military. Began building the Great Wall of China.
Also began canal digging projects that linked north and south China this was designed to help take of grain to the south and rice aided in the movement of people.
----> built in northern China to prevent attacks from the north. Connected a series of walls that already existed. Took several years and over 300,000 Chinese peasants --> thousands died and it stretches over 4,000 miles.
Chinese peace a 400 year period of prosperity and stability. China fed its population by storing grain during times of plenty and selling it when harvest were poor
Only talented intelligent people
were appointed to government jobs and
They were given test to see if they were qualified and evolved into civil service system a system that allowed anyone with the ability to attain public office -----> unfortunately this usually favored the wealthy b/c
education was expensive
silk, paper, gunpowder, wheelbarrow, printed books, suspension bridge, and a compass
stretched from modern Pakistan almost to the southern end of modern India
who built the empire through bloody conquest
Converted life under
, promoted spread of Buddhist missionaries into East and Southeast Asia ----> India remains
Gupta Empire (320 CE- 550 CE)
Covered northern half of India
Contributions to Western Culture '
'discovered'' the zero but the Mayans actually discovered it before them. Discovery ---->Numerals and chess and medical advances .
Teotihuacan a city state located in the middle of Mexico and a population of 200,000
Built reservoirs, apartment complexes and pyramids
traded and warred with Maya
, located central american and southern Mexico.
Made complex mathematical calculations
, studied the stars ----> developed a complex writing system to record, history, religious beliefs and astronomical observations
The largest city ---> Tika
l a population of 100,000 people. The largest structure in Americas until late 19th century
featured irrigation and terracing of hillsides which supported a population of nearly 5 million
Established a tribute system of goods and people from those who were conquered; connected to and influenced regional trade networks
Close relationship between spiritual and political leaders and human sacrifice was important
Territory stretched 250 miles along the west coast of the Andes Mountains in Peru
Traded with neighboring people
Skilled fine craftsmen in jewelry, gold, and pottery
Govern by a class of warrior priests
Practiced human sacrifice
Built pyramids and other large buildings
Complex irrigation systems and terracing to grow crops