Can First impressions be changed
A Coggle Diagram about Explicit versus implicit - It has long been understood that explicit attitudes can be fairly easily changed, but Implicit attitudes are much more difficult to challenge., Positive versus negative
Much easier to change from a positive to a negative than the other way round. , How much does someone need to change? and Gawronski & Bowdenhausen (2011)
Implicit evaluations ‘resistant to change, challenging to alter or pervasive’ (Gawronski et al, 2006)
Implicit attitudes cannot be changed by proving the currently held information false, but instead by confirming the opposite.
‘changes in implicit beliefs may occur as the result of new associations being learn or as the result of a shift in which a subcomponent of a complex representation is currently most accessible’ (Wyer)
Impression change by addition of information doesn’t work as it simply expects people to forget what they first thought. Addition only works when at the same time instructions are given
‘ implicit evaluations are generated through associative processing, but can be updated after learning new information that is deemed valid. When people learn about (and believe) new, counterattitudinal information about a target, for instance, this can create a new counterattitudinal association, which might drive the implicit evaluation’ (Mann & Ferguson).
APE model (From Wikipedia)
a dual process theory that specifies the relation between explicit and implicit evaluations. A central assumption of the APE model is that spontaneous "implicit" evaluations and deliberate "explicit" evaluations are the product of two functionally distinct mental processes. Whereas implicit evaluations are assumed to be the outcome of associative processes, explicit evaluations are assumed to be the outcome of propositional processes. Associative processes are conceptualized as the activation of associations on the basis of feature similarity and spatio-temporal contiguity during learning. Propositional processes are defined as the validation of activated information on the basis of basic principles of cognitive consistency. The APE model has been instrumental in explaining diverging patterns of attitude change, including (a) changes in implicit but not explicit evaluations, (b) changes in explicit but not implicit evaluations, (c) corresponding changes in implicit and explicit evaluations, and (d) opposite changes in implicit and explicit evaluations.