After taking power, Castro abolished legal discrimination, brought electricity to the countryside, provided for full employment and advanced the causes of education and health care, in part by building new schools and medical facilities. But he also closed down opposition newspapers, jailed thousands of political opponents and made no move toward elections. Moreover, he limited the amount of land a person could own, abolished private business and presided over housing and consumer goods shortages. With political and economic options so limited, hundreds of thousands of Cubans, including vast numbers of professionals and technicians, left Cuba, often for the United States.
From the 1960s to the 1980s, Castro supplied military and financial aid to various leftist guerilla movements in Latin America and Africa. Nonetheless, relations with many countries, with the notable exception of the United States, began to normalize. Cuba’s economy foundered when the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 1990s and the United States expanded sanctions even further. Yet Castro, who by this time had switched his title from prime minister to president, found new trading partners and was able to cling to power until 2006, when he temporarily gave control of the government to Raúl after undergoing emergency intestinal surgery. Two years later, in 2008, he permanently resigned.
He was widely criticized for his reformative policies which led to the formation of anti-Castro groups. The group opposed the government, which was duly suppressed by Castro. Even journalists and writers who wrote against the government were forced to publish clarification at the end to every article that opposed the government, thus leading to press censorship.
In 1965, Castro formed the Cuba Communist party. Serving as the head of the organization, he initiated a campaign which supported armed struggle against imperialism in Latin America and Africa.
Cuba’s emergence as a socialist state meant abolishing the position of the President and the Prime Minister and adoption of a new constitution based on the lines of the Soviet Union.
Castro was proffered with the position of the Presidency of both Council of State and Council of Ministers, which made him the head of state and head of government