Industrial Revolution ( (built by "nature," made more land…
( (built by "nature," made more land available
, Dikes- built earthen walls to reclaim the land from the sea.
), Flying Shuttle- increases speed of weaving, made by John Kay
, Socialism- want a society that benefits every single person, not just the rich.
, Adam Smith- believed in free market and the unregulated exchange of goods and services.
, canals were the first best form of transportation for goods via boats or ships, cut cost of coal in half. railways became a competitor for canal companies. canals soon became too expensive so people moved onto steam boats and trains. trains used coal fuel, which was faster and more productive.
, (Domestic system- woman produced textiles by hand in their own homes. people worked at their own pace and focused more on quality than quantity. people had pride in their craftmansship
), (Farmer george- King GEorge III of England who wrote articles about farming and encouraged new farming techniques, which improved farming.
), Utilitarianism - goal of society was for the greatest number of people to be happy
, Thomas Malthus-beleived that population growth would outspace the food supply
, Societal effects of the industrial revolution- enclosure ruins the lives of poorer people, population explosion due to agricultural revolution.
, Standard of living improved for workers because they had better diets and homes, advancements in medicines that improved health, people could travel to work via train or subway, and they lived in suburbs.
, Factory Act of 1833- act that helped to improve working conditions in factories. Some examples are:
no workers under 9 years old
children can't work at night
9-13 year olds can only work for 9 hours a day, 13-18 12 hours per day
, tenements- land where the most amount of people could try to live in the same space (if that makes sense)
, Sadler report- people would interview workers from factories, kids, to see the working conditions to determine what needed to be changed.
, Luddites- dislike technology and attack machines in factories. Led by Ned Ludd, who is compared to Robin Hood. There was a spike of Luddites in the 1990 due to the production of computers. They put out wanted posters because large amounts of moneys worth of machines were being destroyed.
, urbanization is when an area becomes more city like and receives advancements in technology. This happens after the agricultural revolution and is known as the industrial revolution.
, Enclosure- large land owners, rich people, forced peasants out of their land, giving them no place to work and led to them moving to urban cities.
, Charles Townshed encouraged farmers to grow turnips for soil regeneration. it helped with increase in amount of food produced. They were also used for animal feed.
, Seed Drill- Invented by Jethro Tull, helped to scatter seeds randomly across fields to aid farmers and make it more efficent.
, Robert Bakewell came up with different ways to breed animals for food production. (better animals, more milk, better meat)
, David Ricardo- "Iron Law of Wages" , believed that when wages are high, families have more children. But, more children = larger labour force and higher unemployment rates.
, Germ theory- theory that stated that certain microbes might cause specific infectious diseases, but most doctors didn't agree with this.