Introduction to ethics: three approaches
A focus on moral reasoning
A Coggle Diagram about (1) Jeremy Bentham and Utilitarianism :silhouettes:
Jeremy Bentham proclaimed that the supreme principle for judging the rightness or wrongness of all our actions is the Principle of Utility, also known as the Greatest Happiness Principle. On this criterion an action is right if it produces ‘the greatest good for the greatest number’., (2) Immanuel Kant and the Deontological Approach :silhouette:
Like Bentham, Kant was a child of the Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. He once wrote an award-winning prize essay answering the question ‘What is Enlightenment?’. His answer: “Enlightenment is man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity. Immaturity is the incapacity to use one’s intelligence without the guidance of another.”12 Thus, for Kant, Enlightenment is the emancipation from immaturity (‘Unmündigkeit’ in German) towards autonomy or self-determination., (3) Aristotle, MacIntyre and Virtue Ethics
Although Aristotle considers eudaimonia (eudaimonia: happiness, felicity, prosperity) as the natural telos (aim) of human life, he does not promote it to the supreme criterion for guiding our actions.
for Aristotle, the relationship between the practising of
the virtues and a happy life is not simply an external relationship between means and ends; the virtues are rather seen as the central part of the good and happy life of man. and Animals and philosophy