Civil Rights Movements
A Coggle Diagram about Non Violent
(One of the most famous non-violent protest was the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955-1956 that started from the arrest of Rosa Parks. For one year supporters did not ride public transportation. :bus: :girl::skin-tone-6:
, Greensboro Sit Ins- Four African American college students walked up to a whites-only lunch counter at the local woolworths store in Greensboro, North Carolina, and asked for coffee. When service was refused, the students sat patiently. Despite threats and intimidation, the students sat quietly and waited to be served
, Freedom Summer was a 1964 voter registration project in Mississippi, part of a larger effort by civil rights groups to expand black voting in the South
, Non Violence was introduced by civil rights activist Dr. Martin Luther King Jr
, In November 1961, residents of Albany, Georgia, launched a] campaign to eliminate segregation in all aspects of local life. The movement captured national attention when local leaders invited Martin Luther King, Jr. to join the protest. Despite King's involvement, the movement failed to secure allowance from local officials and was said to be unsuccessful.
, The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel, and Al Raby, was created to challenge racial segregation and discrimination in Chicago and its suburbs. The movement which included rallies, protest marches, boycotts, and other forms of non-violent direct action addressed a variety of issues facing black Chicago residents.
, The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional.
, Little Rock Nine- nine black students enrolled at formerly all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957, testing a landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional.
, Martin Luther King Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference made Selma, Alabama, the focus of its efforts to register black voters in the South. That March, protesters attempting to march from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery were met with violent resistance by state and local authorities.
), Key People
(Martin Luther King Jr
, John F. Kennedy
, Lyndon. B Johnson
, Malcolm X
, Bob Moses
, James Chaney
, Fannie Lou Hamer
, James Meredith
and Rosa Parks
(Brown v. Board of Education -1954
Court rules that schools are separate but not equal
, Civil Rights Act of 1964
Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, or religion. Title VI prohibits public access discrimination, leading to desegregation.
, Voting Rights Act of 1965 aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment
, Civil Rights Act of 1957
Prohibits sex-based pay differentials on jobs.
, Civil Rights Act of 1960 United States federal law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote.
, Executive Order 11246 of 1965 prohibited the government from doing business with companies that discriminate
, 1967 ADEA Prohibits age discrimination for 40-65 year olds, amended in 1986 to remove the 65 year old age cap.
and Fair Housing Act of 1968
Requires accessibility for disabled in buildings and facilities financed with federal funds.
) and Violent
(Black Power movement- The "Black Panther Party for Self Defense" was formed to protect Black individuals and neighborhoods from police brutality. Carmichael and McKissick were heavily influenced by the words of Malcolm X, and rejected integration as a short-term goal. Carmichael felt that blacks needed to feel a sense of racial pride and self-respect before any meaningful gains could be achieved. He encouraged the strengthening of African American communities without the help of whites.
, Nation of Islam and Malcolm X- While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from whites. He proposed that African Americans should return to Africa and that, in the interim, a separate country for black people in America should be created. Malcolm was completely for violence.
, Black Panther movement-
The Black Panther organization evolved from the philosophy of the SNCC. Founders Seale, Newton, and former "snic" member Carmicheal established the organization's two major themes. Education, self-esteem, knowledge of heritage, and responsibility were characteristics African Americans needed to help each other gain so that they may be the leaders of their own communities and gain political power. Second, the Panther organization blamed the government for the present condition of ghettos and slums. They believed it was the government's responsibility to rebuild that which they had so successfully created through discrimination.
, Medgar Evers- Evers traveled through his home state encouraging poor African Americans to register to vote and recruiting them into the civil rights movement. He was instrumental in getting witnesses and evidence for the Emmitt Till murder case, which brought national attention to the plight of African Americans in the South. On June 12, 1963, Medgar Evers was killed.
and Defacto v Dejure Segregation- An example of de jure discrimination is the Jim Crow Laws, which were laws enacted in the 1870s that limited people of color in America. They outlawed interracial marriage, created separate water fountains for whites and African Americans, and decreed that African Americans had to sit at the back of the bus. Because the Jim Crow Laws were passed by the government, they are de jure. de facto discrimination frequently occurred in schools. Even if a school was not legally segregated, violence towards African American students or teachers favoring white students would perpetuate the segregation. Neighborhoods were segregated not by law, but by the social and financial expectations that whites and African Americans should be separated.