Summary Mind Map
A Coggle Diagram about Skull
, Facial Bones
(PA Axial – Caldwell:
•Patient: upright position facing the chest stand: OML perpendicular / MSP perpendicular
•CR: 15o caudal – emerge at the nasion
•5x5 collimation will enable the RT to visualize ALL sinuses in this position
--Petrous ridges are in the lower third of the orbit
--frontal sinus is projected free of superimposition on the floor of the cranium.
--The frontal sinus is projected free of superimposition on the fronto-nasal suture of the nasal bones.
Shows frontal and anterior ethmoid sinuses
, Parietoacanthial – Waters
•Patient: upright facing the chest stand chin extended: MML / MSP perpendicular
•CR: perpendicular emerging at the Acanthion
--Petrous ridges should lay immediately below the floor of the maxillary sinuses
--CLOSE BEAM RESTRICTION
Shows maxillary sinuses
•Patient:upright in the RAO/LAO –true lateral: MSP parallel/ IPL perpendicular to the IR
--Tuck the chin so that the IOML is parallel to the transverse axis of the IR
•CR: perpendicular to a point that is 0.5 to 1.0” posterior to the outer canthus.
--NO ROTATION of Sella: Supraorbital roofs are superimposed (IPL) and mandibular rami/condyles are superimposed (MSP)
--Frontal sinus to the mentum and EAM to tip of nose included
Shows ALL sinus groups in their entirety
, Submentovertex (SMV):
•Patient: the sitting upright at the bucky – MSP is perpendicular/IOML parallel to the IR
--PATIENT CARE TIP: Tell them to assume the position they are in when they get their hair washed at the salon: sit on the front edge of the chair, lean back against the back of the chair and tip the head back until the vertex rests on the upright bucky.
•CR: perpendicular to IOML and passes through the Sella Turcica – enter about ¾ “ anterior EAM
--There should be no rotation of the head: the nose should be at NOON.
--The MSP should be perpendicular (equal distance from the foramen magnum to the outer table of the skull on both sides).
--The mentum of the mandible will be superimposed on the frontal bone and the condyle will be anterior to the petrous pyramids
Shows ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses
) and Facial Bones: Special Views